All Notes from Psychology 101

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Rutgers University
Professor Stephen Killianski

PersonalityTheories and Perspectives Wednesday,November 21, 2012 8:21PM 1. Personality 1. unique set of consistent emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies 2. Underlying Structure of Personality 1. 5-factor model 1. Agreeableness 2. Conscientiousness 3. Openness to Experience 4. Extraversion (Positive Emotionally) 5. Neuroticism (Negative Emotionally) 2. Factor Analysis 1. objective consistent analysis states that 5-factor model is the optimum solution 3. Sigmund Freud 1. Figured out that the mind was experiencing physiological ailments, but didn't know why 2. Assumesthat primary force that drives people's minds are experiences 3. Personality developed and set as a child 4. Freudian Theory 1. Id: present at birth; unconscious urges, motives, and drives; pleasure principle (Devil) 1. Libido: sexual life energy that drives the id 2. Thanatos: self destructive death instinct of the id; aggression 2. Ego: rational thought; controls and channels id; follows reality principle (Mediator) 3. Superego: exceptionally severe form on conscious; idea that we do nothing wrong and want to be perfect (Angel) 4. Conscious: things currently aware of-constantly changing 5. Preconscious: things in long term memory that influenced behavior 6. Unconscious: things we are not aware of, but still influence behavior 1. Freudian slip 7. Manifest Content: what is actually remembered about a dream 8. Latent Content: underlying symbols of dreams 5. Psychosexual Stages 1. difference between each stage is where libido directs its focus 2. Oral Stage (0-1 years): exploration of the world through the mouth 1. too much or too little exposure can change personality 3. Anal Stage (1-3 years): find pleasure using the bathroom 1. strictness and permissive of toilet training may result fixation at the anal stage 2. problemscan lead to excessive orderliness or messiness 4. PhallicStage (3-6 years): sex-role identification: superego emerges 1. OedipusTheory/Electra Complex 1. Castration anxiet and penis envy 2. Problemscan lead to sex-role identification problems 5. Latency Stage (6-puberty): focus on mastery of skills 6. Genital Stage (puberty-?): time of mature personality, intimcay with others 1. Libido satisfied by adult 6. Freudian Theory: Defense 1. Defense Mechanisms: methods for dealing with unconscious conflict that distort reality 1. Repression 1. relegating anxiety-causing thought to the unconscious, remaining completely unaware of them 2. Most common defense mechanism 2. Displacement 1. substitutes a less-threatening object for the actual target of the forbidden impulse 3. Projection 1. some undesirable traits, feelings, or actions to others, so they become the problem instead of you 4. Rationalization 1. creating acceptable arguments for thoughts or behavior to hide the actual anxiety 5. Regression 1. reverting to the comfort of behaviors of an earlier stage of development in order to cope 6. Reaction Formation 1. forbidden unconscious urge is experienced consciously as it acts its exact opposite 7. Sublimation 1. most mature mechanism 2. redirecting anxiety- causing impulses into socially acceptable actions 7. Problemswith Freud's Theory 1. Not testable- never explained before it happens and only did after 2. Key portions are contrary to recent date- no evidence for penis envy, the latency period, and castration anxiety 3. Biased against females 4. Relies on too many constructs- relies on the existence of hypotheticals that can't be measured and observed 8. Contributions 1. Stressing the importance of unconscious processes
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