Chapter 6 Learning Outline

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Department
Psychology
Course
01:830:101
Professor
Professor Stephen Killianski
Semester
Fall

Description
ClassicalConditioning Tuesday,December 11, 2012 12:03PM • Phobias- irrational fears of specific objects or situations • Classical Conditioning- type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus ○ Sometimescalled Pavlovian Conditioning • Pavlov's Demonstration: "Psychic Reflexes" ○ Studies saliva in dogs and noticed that dogs accustomed to the procedure would start salivating before the meat powder was pr esented ○ Decided to pair the presentation of the meat powder with various stimuli such as an auditory stimuli of a tone  The dog eventually began salivating at the tone ○ Tonehad started out as a neutral stimulus that turned into the conditioned stimulus • Terminology and Procedures ○ UnconditionedStimulus (US)- stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning ○ UnconditionedResponse (UR)- is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning  Salivation to meat powder ○ ConditionedStimulus (CS)- previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response ○ ConditionedResponse (CR)- learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning  Salivation to tone  Generally weaker or less intense ○ Pavlov's "psychic reflex" came to be called the conditioned reflex  Elicited(Draw forth)- reflexes that are automatic or involuntary ○ Trial- consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli • Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life ○ Conditioned Fear and Anxiety  Cringing at the sound of a drill when at the dentist's office ○ Other Conditioned Emotional Responses  When a woman fell in love, she remembered all of the man's scents and is constantly brought back to the moment of bliss when she smellsthe similar odor again ○ Conditioning and Physiological Responses  Research revealed that the functioning of the immune system can be influenced by conditioning  Classical conditioning can also influence sexual arousal ○ Evaluative Conditioning Attitudes  Evaluative Conditioning- refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli □ Involves the acquisition of likes and dislikes or preferences, through classical conditioning • Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning ○ Acquisition: Forming New Responses  Acquisition- refers to the initial stage of learning something □ Depends on stimulus contiguity, or the occurrence of stimuli together in time and space ○ Extinction Weakening Conditioned Responses  Extinction- gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency □ Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is consistently presented alone, without the unconditioned stimulus □ Conditioned fears tend to be relatively hard to extinguish ○ Spontaneous Recovery: Resurrecting Responses  SpontaneousRecovery- reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus  Renewal Effect- if a response is extinguished in a different environment than where it was acquired, the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where the acquisition took place □ Suggests that extinction somehow suppresses a conditioned response rather than erasing a learned association  Extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning ○ StimulusGeneralization and the Case of Little Albert  Stimulus Generalization- occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus □ Adaptivegiven that organisms rarely encounter the exact same stimulus more than once  Little Albert □ Paired a rat with a loud, startling sound  Then presented another animal that was white and furry and Albert shoed the same fear  Basic law governing generalization is: □ The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization  Can be quantified in graphs called generalization gradients ◊ Maps out how a subject may respond to different stimuli ○ Stimuli Discrimination  Stimulus Discrimination- occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus □ i.e. dog may respond to every car that pulls into the driveway, but eventually it may respond only to the sound of its owner's car  Basic law governing discrimination is: □ The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the likelihood (and ease) of discrimination ○ Higher-Order Conditioning  Higher-order Conditioning- conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus □ Doesn't depend on a natural unconditioned stimulus  An already established conditioned stimulus is just fine □ New conditioned responses are built on the foundation of already established conditioned responses Operant Conditioning Tuesday,December 11, 2012 1:42PM • Operant Conditioning- form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences • Classical conditioning regulated reflexive, involuntary responses, whereas operant conditioning governed voluntary responses • Skinner's Demonstration: It's All a Matter of Consequences ○ Demonstrated that organismstend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences ○ Reinforcement- occurs when an event following a response increases an organism's tendency to make that response  A response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences • Terminology and Procedures ○ Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)- small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled  Designed for rats, the main response made available is pressing a small lever  Designed for pigeons, designated response is pecking a small disk mounted on a side wall  Operant responses are emitted (to send forth) ○ Reinforcement Contigencies- circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the
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