Chapter 12 Personality Outline Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
01:830:101
Professor
Professor Stephen Killianski
Semester
Fall

Description
TheNatureof Personality Saturday,December 15, 2012 7:15 PM • Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness ○ Personality- refers to an individual's unique set of consistent behavioral traits • Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions ○ PersonalityTrait- durabledisposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations • The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits ○ Extraversion  Outgoing, sociable, upbeat, assertive, and gregarious  Referred to as positive emotionality ○ Neuroticism  Anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable  Negative emotionality ○ Openness to Experience  Curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensitivity, and unconventional attitudes ○ Agreeableness  Sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward ○ Conscientiousness  Disciplined, well-organized, punctual, and dependable  constraint PsychodynamicPerspectives Saturday,December 15, 2012 7:56PM • Psychodynamic Theories- include all the diverse theories, descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, that focus on unconscious mental forces • Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory ○ Structure of Personality  Id- primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle □ Houses the raw biological urges that energize human behavior □ Operate according to the pleasure principle- demands immediate gratification of its urges □ Engages in primary-process thinking  Primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented  Ego- decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle □ Mediates between the id and the external world □ Considerssocial realities  RealityPrinciple- seeks to delay gratification o the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found □ Engages in secondary-process thinking  Superego-moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong ○ Levels of Awareness  Conscious- consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time  Preconscious- contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved  Unconscious- thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior ○ Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms  Defense Mechanisms- largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guild □ Rationalization- creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior  i.e. after cheating someone in business transaction, you might reduce your guilt by rationalizing that "everyone does it" □ Repression- keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious □ Projection- attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another  i.e. if having a crush on a coworker, you may feel guilty, so you might attribute any sexual tension to the other person's desire for you □ Displacement- diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target □ ReactionFormation- behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings □ Regression- reversion to immature patterns of behavior  i.e. with a new baby in the house, the older sibling may begin to act like the baby □ Identification- bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group  i.e. an insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his self-esteem □ Sublimation- occurs when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors  i.e. a person obsessed with sex becomes a sex therapist and helps others with their sexual problems ○ Development: Psychosexual Stages  Psychosexual Stages- developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality  Fixation- failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected  Oral Stage □ 1st year of life □ Focus on eating, sucking, biting □ Fixation at this stage could form the basis for obsessive eating or smoking later in life  Anal Stage □ Crucial event is toilet training  PhallicStage □ Oedipal Complex- children manifest erotically tinged desires for their opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent □ Fixation at this stage could result in sex typing, conscience, and many other aspects of the child's development won't progress as they should  Latency and Genital Stages □ Age6 to puberty □ Latency Stage  Centers on expanding social contacts beyond the immediate family □ Genital Stage (Puberty)  Sexual urges reappear and focus on the genitals once again  Sexual energy is normally channeled toward peers of the other sex • Jung's Analytical Psychology ○ Personal Unconscious- houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten ○ Collective Unconscious- storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past  Each person shares the collective unconscious with the entire human race  Archetypes- emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning • Adler'sIndividual Psychology ○ Striving for Superiority- universal drive t
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