Chapter 11 Human Development Across the Life Span Outline Notes

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Rutgers University
Professor Stephen Killianski

ProgressBeforeBirth:Prenatal Development Friday,November 23, 2012 3:42PM • Development- the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death • Zygote- a one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg ○ Contains chromosomes  Contains genes: carry the details fo your hereditary blueprints • Prenatal Period- extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine month of pregnancy • The Course of Prenatal Development ○ Divided into three phases: germinal, embryonic, and fetal stage ○ Germinal Stage- first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception  Begins when a zygote is created through fertilization  Implantation, when the cell mass implants itself into the uterine wall, placenta begins to form  Placenta- structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother ○ Embryonic Stage- second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month  Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism, which is now the embryo □ Heart, spine, and brain emerge gradually  Period of great vulnerability because virtually all the basic physiological structures are being formed  Most miscarriages occur during this period ○ Fetal Stage- third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth  Rapid body growth (muscles, bones, organs, etc) • Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development ○ Fetus and its mother are linked through the placenta, therefore a mother's eating habits, drug use, illnesses, nutrition, and even emotions can affect prenatal development ○ Teratogens- any external agents, such as drugs or viruses, that can harm an embryo or fetus ○ Maternal Drug Use  Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the membranes of the placenta  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)- collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy □ Typical problems include microecephaly, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and delayed mental and motor development □ Most common cause of mental retardation  Smoking appears to increase a mother's risk for miscarriage, stillbirth, and prematurity ○ Maternal Illness and Exposure to Toxins  Fetus is largely defenseless against infections because its immune system matures relatively late in the prenatal period □ Placenta screens out quite a number of infectious agents, but not all  Diseases such as measles, rubella, syphilis, and chicken pox can be hazardous to the fetus  Babies in the womb are exposed to a surprising variety of environmental toxins ○ Maternal Nutrition and Emotions  Malnutrition is a major problem in underdeveloped nations where food shortages are common  It is crucial for the baby to get a balanced and nutritious diet ○ Fetal Originsof Disease  Researchers have begun to explore the links between prenatal factors and adults' physical and mental health □ Recent evidence suggests that events during prenatal development can "program" the fetal brain in ways that influence the person's vulnerability to various types of illness decades later Emotionaland MotorDevelopment in Childhood Saturday,November 24,2012 3:44PM • Exploring the World: Motor Development ○ Motor Development- refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities  Basic motor skills include rasping and reaching for objects, manipulating objects, sitting up, crawling, walking, and running ○ Basic Principles  Cephalocaudal Trend- the head-to-foot direction of motor development □ Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part  Proximodistal Trend- the center-outward direction of motor development □ Children gain control over their torso before their extremities □ Infants initially reach for things by twisting their entire body  Gradually, they learn to extend just their arms  Maturation- development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint □ Product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age as opposed to experience and learning □ Infants are active agents rather than passive organisms waiting for their brain and limbs to mature □ Driving force behind motor development is infants' ongoing exploration of their world and their need to master specific tasks  Progress in motor development is attributed to infants' experimentation and learning the consequences of their activities ○ Understanding Developmental Norms  Developmental Norms- indicate the typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities □ Areuseful benchmarks as long as parents don't expect their children to progress exactly at the pace specified in the norms □ Norms are group averages; variations from average are entirely normal ○ Cultural Variations and Their Significance  Cross-cultural research has highlighted the dynamic interplay between experience and maturation in motor development  Cultural variations in the emergence of basic motor skills show that environmental factors can accelerate or slow early motor development • Easy and Difficult Babies: Differences in Temperament ○ Temperament- refers to characteristic mood activity level, and emotional reactivity ○ Longitudinal design- investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time  Extend over many years  Tend to be more sensitive to developmental changes ○ Cross-sectional design- investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time  Can be completed more quickly, easily and cheaply  Changes that appear to reflect development may really be cohort effects  Cohort Effects- occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods ○ Individual differences in temperament appear to be influenced to a considerable degree by heredity ○ Temperament is not unchangeable • Early Emotional Development: Attachment ○ Attachment- refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers ○ SeparationAnxiety- emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment  Occurs with fathers and other familiar caregivers as well as with mothers □ Typically peaks at around 14-18 months ○ Theories of Attachment  Infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers an affectionate, protective response from adults □ Adults are programmed by evolutionary forces to be captivated by this behavior and to respond with warmth, love, and Protection ○ Patterns of Attachment  Strange SituationProcedure- infants are exposed to a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to assess the quality of their attachment □ 3-minuteepisodes carefully orchestrated with laboratory procedure involves events such as a stranger entering a room where an infant is playing with a parent nearby, followed by the parent leaving, returning, leaving, and returning again  Child's reactions are carefully monitored  Most infants develop a secure attachment □ Mother is a secure base  Somechildren display a pattern called anxious-ambivalent attachment □ Appear anxious even when their mother is near and protest excessively when she leaves, but are not particularly comforted when she returns  Avoidantattachment □ Seek little contact with their mothers and often are not distressed when she leaves  Disorganized-disoriented □ Children appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid mother □ Such children are especially insecure ○ Culture and Attachment  Somemodest cultural variations in the proportion of infants who fall into the three attachment categories □ 67% display a secure attachment □ 21% display an avoidant attachment □ 12% display an anxious-ambivalent attachment Personalityand Cognitive Development in Childhood Saturday,November 24,2012 5:21PM • Becoming Unique: Personality Development ○ Erik Erikson (1963) concluded that events in early childhood leave a permanent stamp on an adult's personality, but theorized that personality continues to evolve over the entire life span ○ Devised a stage theory of personality development ○ Stage- is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established • Erikson's Stage Theory ○ Splitthe life span into eight stages  Each stage brings a psychosocial crisis (turning point) □ Each crisis entails a struggle between two opposing tendencies  Viewed each stage as a tug of war that determined the subsequent balance between opposing polarities in personality  Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust □ First year of life □ Is my world predictable and supportive?  Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt □ Second and third years □ Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others  Stage 3: Initiative vs Guilt □ Fourth through sixth years □ Am I good or am I bad?  Stage 4: Industry vs Inferiority □ Age6 through puberty □ Am I competent or am I worthless?  Stage 5: Identity vs Confusion □ Adolescence □ Who am I and where am I going?  Stage 6: Intimacy vs Isolation □ Early Adulthood □ Shall I share my life with another or live alone?  Stage 7: Generativityvs Self-absorption □ Middle Adulthood  Will I produce something of real value?  Stage 8: Integrity vs Despair □ Late Adulthood  Have I lived a full life? ○ Evaluating Erikson's Theory  Strength: □ Accountsfor both continuity and transition in personality development  Showshow new challenges in social relations stimulate personality development throughout life  Draws connections between early childhood experiences and aspects of adult personality  Weaknesses □ Depends heavily on illustrative case studies  Such studies are open to various interpretations □ Theoryprovides an "idealized" description of "typical" developmental patterns  Not well suited for explaining the enormous personality differences that exist among people • Cognitive Development- refers to transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving • Overview of Piaget's Stage Theory ○ Piaget proposed that youngsters progress through four major stages of cognitive development, which are characterized by fundamentally different though processes:  The sensorimotor period (birth to age 2) □ Infants are developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions
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