Chapter 7 Memory Outline Notes

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Professor Stephen Killianski

Encoding:GettingInformationinto Memory Tuesday,December 11, 2012 10:57 PM • Encoding- involves forming a memory code • Storage- involves maintaining encoded informationin memory over time • Retrieval- involvesrecovering informationfrom memory stores • The Role of Attention ○ Attention- involvesfocusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events  Key issue is whether stimuli are screened out early, during sensory input, or late, after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input ○ "Cocktail party phenomenon" suggests that stimulus is screened out late, after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the input  If talking to someone directly, may pick up someone else saying your name and switch attention to that person  Suggests that attention involves late selection, based on the meaning of input ○ Divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasks, especially when the tasks are complex or unfamiliar  Though people think that they can multitask, research suggests that the human brain can effectively handle only one attention-consuming task at a time • Levels of Processing ○ Shallow Processing  Structural encoding: emphasized the physical structure of the stimulus □ i.e. Is the word written in capital letters? ○ Intermediate Processing  Phonemicencoding: emphasized what a word sounds like □ i.e. Does the word rhyme with weight? ○ Deep Processing  Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input □ i.e. Would the word fit in the sentence: "He met a _______ on the street?" • Enriching Encoding ○ Elaboration- linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding ○ Visual Imagery  Imagery- creation of visual images to represent words  Imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code □ Dual-coding theory- memoryis enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall ○ Self-Referent Encoding- involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant  Led to improved recall of the adjectives ○ Motivation to Remember  When it is high, then it is perceived as important and more likely to exert extra effort to attend to and organize information in ways that facilitate future recall Storage:MaintainingInformationin Memory Tuesday,December 11, 2012 11:24PM • Sensory Memory ○ Sensory Memory- preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second ○ Allowsthe sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to linger for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over  People see an afterimage ○ Brief preservation of sensations in sensory memory is adaptive in that it gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli  Doesn't last long • Short-Term Memory ○ Short-termmemory (STM)- is a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10-20 seconds  In contrast, informationstored in long-term memory may last weeks, months, or years ○ Rehearsal- the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information ○ Durabilityof Storage  Short-term memory is lost in 10 to 20 seconds □ Demonstrated loss when undergraduates were asked to memorize three consonants if they couldn't rehearse them  Follow up research showed that interference from competing material contributed to forgetting the consonants ○ Capacity of Storage  The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two  Chunk- group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit  Baddedely's Model of Working Memory □ Phonological Loop- at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold on to a phone number □ Visuospatial Sketchpad- permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images  Atwork when you try to mentally rearrange the furniture in your bedroom or map out a route to travel somewhere □ Central Executive system- controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed  Also coordinates the action of the other modules □ EpisodicBuffer- temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the various components of working memoryto integrate information  Also serves as the interface between working memoryand long-term memory □ Still includes limited capacity and storage □ Working Memory Capacity (WMC)- refers to one's ability to hold an manipulate information in conscious attention • Long-Term Memory ○ Long-termMemory (LTM)- unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time ○ All informationstored is kept there permanently  According to this view, forgetting only occurs because people sometimes cannot retrieve needed informationfrom LTM ○ Flashbulb Memories- unusually vivid and detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous, newsworthy events  i.e. remembering your exact location during the 9/11 attacks  Althoughflashbulb memories tend to be strong, vivid, and detailed, studies suggest they are neither as accurate nor as special as once believed □ Asother memories, they become less detailed and complete with time and are often inaccurate • How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? ○ Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies  People spontaneously organize informationinto categories for storage in memory  Conceptual Hierarchy- multilevel classification system based on commonproperties among items ○ Schemas  Schema- organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event □ Associating a college professor's office with books and filing cabinets even though there were other things in there  People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not  People sometimes exhibit better recall of things that violate their schema-based expectations ○ Semantic Networks  SemanticNetwork- consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts  Have proven useful in explaining why thinking about one word can make a closely related word easier to remember □ When people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words  Spreading activation ○ Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing Models  Connectionist or Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)- a
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