Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders Outline Notes

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Professor Stephen Killianski

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AbnormalBehavior: General Concepts Saturday,December 15, 2012 1:39PM • The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior ○ Medical Model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease ○ Brought improvements in the treatment of those who exhibited abnormal behavior ○ Diagnosis- involves distinguishing one illness from another ○ Etiology- refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness ○ Prognosis- forecast about the probably course of an illness • Criteria of Abnormal Behavior 1. Deviance 2. Maladaptive Behavior 3. Personal Distress • The Prevalence of Psychological Disorders ○ Epidemiology- the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population  Prevalence- refers to the percentage of a population that exhibit a disorder during a specified time period AnxietyDisorders Saturday,December 15, 2012 3:45PM • AnxietyDisorders- class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety • Generalized AnxietyDisorder- marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat ○ People with this disorder constantly worry about yesterday's mistakes and tomorrow's problems ○ Often dread making decisions and brood over them endlessly ○ Commonly accompanied by physical symptoms  Trembling  Muscle tension  Diarrhea  Dizziness  Faintness  Sweating • Phobic Disorder- marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger ○ Phobias are extremely common  Only considered a disorder when their fears seriously interfere with their everyday behavior ○ Reactions tend to be accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety • PanicDisorder- characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly ○ Accompanied by physical symptoms of anxiety • Agoraphobia- fear of going out to public places ○ Mainly a complication of panic disorder • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)- marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) ○ People troubled by obsessions may feel that they have lost control of their mind ○ Compulsions usually involve stereotyped rituals that temporarily relieve anxiety • PosttraumaticStressDisorder (PTSD)- involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event ○ Vulnerability is associated with greater personal injuries and losses, greater intensity of exposure to the traumatic even, and more exposure to the grotesque aftermath of the event  One key predictor of vulnerability is the intensity of one's reaction at the time of the traumatic event • Etiology of Anxiety Disorders ○ Biological Factors  Concordance Rate- indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder  Anxiety disorders may in fact be genetic  A link may exist between anxiety disorders and neurochemical activity in the brain ○ Conditioning and Learning  Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning  Preparedness- tendency to develop phobias of certain types of objects □ Evolved module for fear learning ○ CognitiveFactors  Somepeople are more likely to suffer from problems with anxiety because they tend to □ Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening □ Focus excessive attention on perceived threats □ Selectively recall information that seems threatening ○ Stress  Anxiety disorders can be stress related  Patients with panic disorder had experienced a dramatic increase in stress in the month prior to the onset of their disorder DissociativeDisorders Saturday,December 15, 2012 4:58 PM • Dissociative Disorders- class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory,resulting in disruptionsin t heir sense of identity • Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue ○ Dissociative Amnesia- sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting ○ Dissociative Fugue- people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity • Dissociative Identity Disorder ○ Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)- involves the coexistence in one person of two ore more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities  Used to be multiple personality disorder  Variouspersonalities generally report that they are unaware of each other  Alternate personalities commonlydisplay traits that are quite foreign to the original personality ○ Et
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