Psychology Chapter 7
7.1 Types of Memory
• Memory- the retention of information
• Free recall- to produce a response, as you do on essay tests or short-answer tests
• Cued recall- receive significant hints about the material
• Recognition- someone chooses the correct item among several choices
• Saving method(relearning method)- compares the speed of original learning to speed of
• Explicit(direct) memory- someone who states an answer regards it as a product of
• Implicit(indirect) memory- an experience influences what you say or do even though you
might not be aware of the influence.
• Primes- reading or hearing a word temporarily increases the chance that you will use it
• Procedural memories- memories of motor skills
• Declarative memories- memories we can readily state in words
• Information-processing model- information that enters the system is processed, coded,
• Short term memory- temporary storage of recent events
• Long-term memory- a relatively permanent store.
• Semantic memory- memory of principles and facts
• Episodic memory- memory for specific event
• Source amnesia- forgetting where or how you learned something
• Chunking- grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters.
• Brain representation decays over time
• Consolidate- converting short- term memory into a long- term memory
• Working memory- system for working with current information • Phonological loop- stores and rehearses speech information. Lets you remember
• Visuospatial sketchpad- temporary stores and manipulates visual and spatial information
• Central executive- governs shifts of attention. ( nurse keeping track of patients)
• Episodic buffer- binds together various parts of a meaningful experience. ( dinner date
7.2 Encoding, storage, and retrieval
• Emotional arousal- increases release of cortisol and epinephrine
• Primary effect- tendency to remember well the first items
• Recency effect- tendency to remember well the final items
• Levels-of-processing principle- how easily you retrieve a memory depends on the
number and types of associations you form.
• Retrieval cues- rem