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Chapter 9

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Margaret Ingate

Chapter 9: Theories of Social Development  Psychoanalytic Theories o View of Children’s Nature  Freud- Behavior is motivated by the need to satisfy basic drives  Erikson- development is driven by a series of developmental crises related to age and biological maturation  Central Development Issues  Within the framework of discontinuous development, psychoanalytic theories stress the continuity of individual differences, emphasizing that children’s early experiences have a major impact on their subsequent development.  Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development  Basic Features of Freud’s Theory o Referred to as a theory of psychosexual development because he thought that even very young children have a sexual nature that motivates their behavior and influences their relationships with other people. o Psychic energy: Freud’s term for the collection of biologically based instinctual drives that he believed fuel behavior, thoughts, and feelings o Erogenous zones: in Freud’s theory, areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development.  The Developmental Process o Helpless infant is hungry so it cries in order to be fed. o Id: the earliest and most primitive personality structure. It is unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure.  Ruled by the pleasure principle- the goal of achieving maximal gratification maximally quickly. o Oral stage (1 years old): the first stage in Freud’s theory, occurring in the first year, in which the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure is oral activity.  Include sucking and eating o Ego: the second personality structure to develop. It is the rational, logical, problem-solving component of personality.  Arises out of the need to resolve conflicts between the id’s unbridled demands for immediate gratification and the restraints imposed by the external world.  Operated under the reality principle- trying to find ways to satisfy the id that accord with the demands of the real world. o Anal stage (1-3 years old): second stage of the theory in which the primary source of pleasure comes from defecation. o Phallic stage (3-6 years old): the third stage in which sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia  During this time, children identify with their same-sex parent, giving rise to gender differences in attitudes and behavior.  Boys become very interested in their penis, girls develop “penis envy” o Superego: the third personality structure, consisting of internalized moral standards  A conscience  Enables a child to control his or her own behavior on that basis of beliefs about right and wrong  Based on the child’s internalization: the process of adopting as one’s own the attitudes, beliefs, and standards of another person  Guides the child to avoid actions that would result in guilt o Oedipus complex: conflict experienced by boys in the phallic period because of their sexual desire for their mother and their fear of retaliation by their father  Son’s desire for mother and hostility towards father are so threatening that the boy’s ego protects him through repression, banishing his dangerous feelings to the unconscious (mental storehouse where anxiety-producing thoughts and impulses are held hidden from conscious awareness) o Electra complex: conflict experienced by girls in the phallic stage when they develop unacceptable romantic feelings for their father and see their mother as a rival. o Latency period (6-12 years old): the fourth stage in which sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities  A relative calm  Sexual desires are safely hidden away in the unconscious o Genital stage (12+ years): the fifth and final stage in which sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal o If any of the needs are not met, children may become fixated on those needs, continually attempting to satisfy them and to resolve associated conflicts.  Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development  Accepted the basic elements of Feud’s theory but incorporate social factors into it.  The Developmental Process o Proposed eight age-related stages of development that span infancy to old age. o Each stage is characterized by a specific crisis, or set of developmental issues, that the individual must resolve. o If the dominant issue is not successfully resolved before maturation and social pressures usher in the next stage, the person will continue to struggle with it. o 1. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (first year)  The crucial issue for the infant is developing a sense of trust  The baby comes to feel good and reassured by being close to other people  If the ability to trust others does not develop- person will have difficulty forming intimate relationships o 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1- 3 ½ )  Challenge is to achieve a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to increasing social demands  If parents provide supportive atmosphere that allows children to achieve self-control without the loss of self- esteem, children gain a sense of autonomy. o 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)  Children come to identify with and learn from their parents  Want to be just like their parents  Crucial attainment is the development of conscience- the internalization of the parents’ rules and standards, and the experiencing of guilt when failing to uphold them.  Parents not highly controlling- develop high standards and the initiative to meet them without being crushed by worry about not being able to measure up. o 4. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-puberty)  Crucial for ego development  Master cognitive and social skills that are important to culture  Learn to work industriously and to cooperate with peers  Successful given child sense of competence, failure leads to feelings of inadequacy o 5. Identify vs. Role Confusion (adolescence to early adulthood)  Adolescents must resolve the question of who they really are or live in confusion about what roles they should play as adults.  Current Perspectives  Freud o Emphasis on the importance of early experience and emotional relationships and his recognition of the role of subjective experience and unconscious mental activity.  Erikson o Emphasis on the quest for identity in adolescence has had a lasting impact.  Weakness for both theories is that they are stated too vaguely to be testable and many elements are regarded as highly questionable.  Learning Theories o View of Children’s Nature  Emphasis on the importance of cognitive factors and the active role children play in their own development. o Watson’s Behaviorism  Believed that children’s development is determined by their social environment and that learning through conditioning is the primary mechanism of development.  “Little Albert”  Systematic desensitization: a form of therapy based on classical cond
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