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Psychology (294)
01:830:340 (46)
Chapter 8


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Rutgers University
Sara Campbell

Chapter 8: Obesity I. statistics ■ BMI 30 or greater ■ around 30-33 percent of pop and steadily increasing ■ medical costs of 9% of country ■ risk of mortality increases by 30% and BMI of 40 or more risk is 100% ■ number of overweight adolescents has tripled in the past 25 years ■ in adolescents 30% is overweight or obese and 17% is obese ■ global phenomenon ■ great risk for type II diabetes ■ 50% african american women 43% hispanic women and 33% caucasian women II. disordered eating ■ two maladaptive types of eating binge and night eating ■ night eating syndrome- consuming a third or more of daily food intake after the evening meal and getting out of bed at least once during the night to have a high calorie snack ○ usually are not hungry in the morning and do not eat breakfast ○ do not bonge during their night eating and rarely purge III. causes ■ related to the spread of modernization “toxic environment” ■ genetics contribute to a smaller portion of obesity cases than cultural factors ■ psychological processes of emotion regulation, impulsive control and motivation ■ strongly influenced by relationships with family and friends ○ study showed that risk of becoming obese increased from 37-57% in those with a family member or spouse who was obese, coworkers and neighbors has no influence IV. treatment ■ greater long term treatment effects in children than adults ○ more social support and habits are less engraved than in adults ○ in severe obese children combined drug and behavior treatment was more efective ■ effect of self help diet books is that individuals lose weight in short term but cannot keep it off ■ weight watchers and commercial programs show slightly more success then self help programs ○ 80% or individuals are not successful in the long run ■ most successful programs are professionally directed behavior modification programs and group maintenance sessions ■ drugs that change appetite may be effective but have many side effects ■ bariatric surgery- stapling the stomach ○ psychological programs have been developed to help patients prepare for surgery and post op SLEEP DISORDERS REM sleep- periodic intervals of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly from side to side and the dreams occur but the body is inactive sleep problems may be able to predict who is at risk for mood disorders dyssomnias- a problem in getting to sleep or in obtaining sleep of sufficient quality parasomnias- abnormal behavior such as a nightmare or sleepwalking that occurs during sleep polysomnographic evaluation (PSG)- assessment of sleep disorders in which client is monitored for heart rate, muscle, respiration, brain wave and other functions actigraph- small device worn on the wrist that records body movements and can be used to record sleep wake cycles, used to determine the quality of sleep sleep efficiency- percentage of time spent actually sleeping compared to the total time spent in bed also take into consideration behavior while person is awake I. primary insomnia A. definitions ■ microsleeps- short periods of sleep lasting only a few seconds when someone has been deprived of sleep for more than 40 hours ■ person has insomnia if they have difficulty initiating sleep, have difficulties maintaining sleep, or have not rested sleep B. clinical description ■ primary insomnia- difficulty in initiating, maintaining, or gaining from sleep not related to other medical conditions or psychological problems C. statistics ■ almost a third of the pop report some symptoms of insomnia in a year ■ 35 % of pop report daytime sleepiness ■ most common in older black men ■ commonly associated with alzheimers and dementia ■ often occurs with alcohol abuse to initiate sleep ■ twice as common in women than men ■ children 25-45% of
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