B A 300 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Cognitive Bias, Virtue Ethics, Implicit-Association Test

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8 Feb 2017
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Facilitators of and barriers to good ethical judgement
Weaknesses and biases in decision making have direct implications for ethical decision
making
People try to reduce uncertainty and simplify their world
Being “in charge” and able to predict events is a highly valued characteristic
Thoughts likely to be biased
May look for the wrong ones or stop looking too soon because you think you already
have all the facts you need
Being overconfident can make someone stop searching for more facts of support
Confirmation trap- cognitive bias
Tendency to look for info that proves us right and neglect otherwise
Think of ways you could be wrong
Thinking about Consequences
People often reduce number of consequences to consider and ignore ones that affect
only a few people
People make decisions out of self interest
Consequences to self is more important to people
When consequences of multiple alternatives are ambiguous people tend to choose the
alternative they personally prefer rather than the one that is more just
People underestimate how much of decisions are self interest
Consequences as Risk
Illusion of optimism - overestimate the likelihood of good future events and
underestimate the bad
People also think they’re less susceptible to risk than others
Illusion of control- general belief that we really are in charge of what happens
Decisions are not isolated choices but a series of choices within the context of a larger
decision or project
Tendency to continue commitment to a previously selected investment “escalation of
commitment to a losing course of action” “throwing good money after bad”
Rational decision maker would consider time and expenses invested as sunk costs
Only future costs and benefits should be considered
If others involved- feel the need to justify our decision
To overcome, recognize it exists or bring in outsiders
Thinking about Integrity
People likely to think positively of their own ethics
Illusion of superiority or illusion of morality
Virtue ethics approach suggests you rely on the ethics of your profession
Thinking about your gut
ethical judgements are often more intuitive impulsive and automatic than deliberative
Operating below conscious awareness
Individuals who rely on only a more conscious deliberative approach may arrive at worse
ethical decisions than those who use moral intuition and have strong emotional
responses
Implicit Association Test
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