Textbook Notes (270,000)
US (100,000)
SDSU (700)
NUTR (10)
Chapter 10

NUTR 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Community Of Portuguese Language Countries, Synthes, Angular Cheilitis


Department
Foods And Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 201
Professor
Ferraro
Chapter
10

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 18 pages of the document.
Chapter 10 Water-Soluble Vitamins
The Water-Soluble Vitamins: A Primer
There are nine essential water-soluble vitamins: eight B vitamins and vitamin C.
Water-Soluble Vitamins Tend to Have Similar Properties
o They dissolve in water
o The body generally digests, absorbs, and transports the water-soluble vitamins in similar
ways
Absorbed mostly in the small intestine and the stomach
o Many water-soluble vitamins found in foods are bound to proteins that enzymes must
remove before the vitamins can be absorbed
o Their bioavailability can be influenced by many factors, including nutritional status, other
nutrients and substances in foods, medications, age, and illness
o All water-soluble compounds (except choline) are circulated directly to the liver in the
blood
o Generally do not have toxic effects when consumed in large amounts
Water-Soluble Vitamins Function in Diverse Ways
o The functions of water-soluble vitamins or compounds are diverse and often unique
o Most of the water-soluble vitamins or compounds made from them serve as coenzymes in
energy metabolism pathways
Some Vitamins have Several Names
o B-complex vitamins a term used to describe all the B vitamins
o Vitamin C = ascorbic acid
Vitamin
Common Name
Mnemonic
Thiamin
The
Riboflavin
Romans
Niacin
Never
Pantothenic Acid
Painted
Pyridoxine
Pyramids
Biotin
Before

Cobalamin
College
Some Foods are “Enriched” or “Fortified” with Micronutrients
o Some foods contain nutrients that are naturally occurring, others contain nutrients added
during processing
o Fortified food a food to which nutrients have been added
o Enrichment the fortification of a select group of foods with FDA-specified levels of
thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, folate, and iron
Only select foods can be labled as enriched: rice, flour, bread, or rolls, farina
(cream of wheat), pasta, cornmeal, and corn grits
o Enriched food is more nutrient-dense than its unprocessed counterpart
Water-Soluble Vitamins can be Destroyed by Cooking and Improper Storage
o A diet that provides the right balance and variety of foods and beverages can provide all
the nutrients needed to maintain health
o Some nutrients can be destroyed by exposure to water, air, heat, or light, whereas others
are affected by acidity (pH)
Vitamin B content can be preserved by some foods by not overcooking them and
covering them to decrease their exposure to light
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Thiamin (Vitamin ) Needed for Production of Acetyl Coenzyme A
Thiamin (Vitamin ) an essential water-soluble vitamin involved in energy metabolism;
synthesis of DNA, RNA, and NADPH + ; and nerve function
o Contains thiol (sulfur) and amine (nitrogen) groups
o Must first be altered to serve its physiological process
o Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP) the coenzyme form of thiamin that has two phosphate
groups
o Thiamin Triphosphate (TTP) a form of thiamin with three phosphate groups
Whole Grains, Pork, and Fish are Rich in Thiamin
o Thiamin is available from a wide variety of foods:
Pork
Peas
Fish (tuna)
Legumes (black beans)
Whole-grains
Enriched cereal products
Soy milk
o Thiamin is sensitive to heat and easily destroyed during cooking
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

“Antithiamin Factors” Decrease Thiamin Bioavailability
o Thiamin absorption increases when thiamin intake is chronically low
o When thiamin intake is chronically high, its absorption proceeds more slowly by simple
diffusion
o Compounds found in raw fish, coffee, tea, berries, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage can
destroy thiamin or interfere with its absorption
These “antithiamin factors” work in several ways:
Inactivating thiamin via oxidation
Vitamin C-rich foods can help prevent thiamin oxidation because vitamin
C acts as an antioxidant
Alcohol consumption can decrease the absorption of thiamin by
interfering with its active transport across the basolateral membrane of
enterocytes
o Thiamin circulates in the blood to the liver, where the vitamin is metabolized, used, or
recirculated in the blood to other cells in the body
o Excess thiamin is not stored, it is further metabolized and excreted in the urine
Thiamin is Critical for ATP Production
o Thiamin has many functions within cells, including both enzymes and non-coenzyme
roles
o TTP is required to make ATP
o Thiamin-containing TPP (made in the liver) is need for the activation of an enzyme that
converts pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA)
o Acetyl-CoA is an important compound situated at the crossroads of ATP production
o TPP is a mandatory component of an enzyme required in the citric acid cycle and another
enzyme that allows some amino acids to enter the citric acid cycle
o Thiamin functions as an integral component of the body’s ATP-producing energy
metabolism pathways
o TPP also plays a role in the synthesis of DNA and RNA
Without TPP acting as a coenzyme that make DNA and RNA cannot function
properly and protein synthesis is halted
o TPP is also required for the synthesis of NADPH + , which is needed for triglyceride
synthesis
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version