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Rhetoric: the ability, in each case, to see all of the available means of persuasion
Rhetor: the agent for rhetoric (the who), someone who is able to create action **the
Rhetor is not the same thing as the sender. They are both agents but they aren’t the
same thing because a sender’s job is to send a message and the rhetor’s job is to
persuade. The most famous American rhetor is Martin Luther King. His favorite
speech was the one right before he died. Miguel de Cervantes is also a rhetor
because his book Don Quixote created social change.
Rhetorical Strategies –the ways we persuade
Classical Appeals- the 3 ways we persuade people
• Logos- reason
o Appeal to reason; logical appeal
o An appeal to the logical, rational nature of human beings
o Appealing to the audience’s reason or logic
o This type of persuasion is good for realists like engineer, doctors, etc.
o Deductive Reasoning- big cases and we bring it down to an
individual one; an argument that establishes a general observation
and proceeds to a specific conclusion.
▪ Syllogism- three parts to a logical argument
• Major premise- all humans have a right to rebel against
tyranny in order to be free
• Minor premise- the king has demonstrated of a tyrant in
his treatment of his subjects
• Conclusion- the right to go against the king
o Inductive Reasoning- an argument which proceeds from several
specific observations or facts to lead to a general conclusion
• Pathos- emotion; an appeal to the emotional, feelings nature of human
beings—the audiences passions, loves, desires, senses, or fears. **it is the
MOST persuasive** pathos always wins!
• Ethos- authority
o The appeal to your credibility – **Aristotle esteemed this the most out
of logos and pathos and ethos.**
o It’s all about believing someone to be credible.
o 2 types of ethos:
▪ Inherent ethos: respect for the speakers established authority,
experience, expertise, position, or status. Its what you know
about the speaker OUTSIDE of what the speaker says.
▪ Explicit ethos: this is the ethos you express while you’re
speaking; respect for the trustworthy manner of the speaker.
It’s the impression the audience forms by what the speaker
says and how the speaker says it. Ex: if the teacher can’t say
words write or spell, he can lose ethos
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