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PSYC 001 (15)
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10_ Intelligence.docx

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San Jose State University
PSYC 001
Greg Feist

Intelligence defined ● One of most widely studied topics in all of psychology ● some argue intelligence = measurement of intelligence tests ○ circular ○ tests invented to measure nor define intelligence ● Panel of experts define: ○ “Ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt efficiently to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought.” IQ vs. Intelligence ● IQ = (Mental age/ chronological age) x 100 (or MA/CAx 1000 (Children) ○ ex. child w/ CA=10, MA= 12 ○ 100 general IQ = average ○ Distribution = bell curve ■ 2/3 in standard deviation ● 85 & 115 = 1 standard deviation ● “140” = genius ○ IQ Test: verbal, spatial, mathematical like SAT ■ meaningful only if > reliable & valid ■ reliability ● consistency of results - should get similar scores ● reliability over time = test-retest reliability ● questions correlating highly w/ other items > high internal reliability ■ validity ● tests > measure intelligence; not something else ○ predicts real-world outcomes ● more difficult to establish than reliability ● IQ tests > ○ measures only spatial, verbal, and mathematical ○ doesn’t measure social, emotional, musical, bodily, practical, and natural history ○ do predict certain real-world outcomes ■ academic performance ■ cannot predict how happy you will be with life/job ● constructive validity ○ measures concept/construct test claims to measure ● predictive validity ○ construct related positively > real-world outcomes ○ MA= mental age ■ equivalent chronological age of child reached based on intelligence test performance ○ CA= chronological age ○ IQ =/= creativity ● Intelligence = ○ 1 thing (g-factor models) ■ Focus on verbal, mathematical, spatial ■ Alfred Binet - early 1900s w/ French school children ● tested school children ● 30 items of increasing difficulty ■ Stanford-Binet (Lewis Terman made US version of Binet test) ● 1930s ● normalized IQ test levels toAmerican kids ● varies according to testtaker age ● Studied smartest people (140+) ■ Wechsler Adult intelligence scales (WAIS) for adults ■ g-factor ● general cognitive skill & set of abilities that cut across domains but is most clearly seen in verbal, math, spatial reasoning ● Performance in 1 form of test predicts performance on others ● intelligence measured by IQ tests ○ predicts academic performance in school ○ doesn’t predict all kinds of intelligence (esp. non-academic) ○ multiple-factor-theory of intelligence ■ Cattell-horn-carroll (CHC) model of intelligence ● intelligence = one and many ● hierarchy system of 3 levels ○ general intelligence - similar to Spearman’s “g” concept ○ broad intelligence - Crystallized & fluid intelligence abilities, memory, learning, processing speed. ○ narrow intelligence - 70 abilities ■ i.e. speed of reasoning, general sequential reasoning for fluid intelligence, reading, spelling, language comprehension for crystallized intelligence ● crystallized intelligence ○ comes w/ experience ● fluid intelligence ○ raw processing speed since early age ■ Robert Sternberg & Howard Gardner theories on intelligence ● Gardner’s multiple intelligences ○ beyond academic/IQ forms ■ disagrees g-factor ● more than quantitative, verbal, spatial ■ include artistic & interpersonal skills ● you can’t test and don’t test on an IQ test ○ Multiple factors not always related; accounts for why there is genius in math but not language ■ savants - people with bizarre intellectual ability ● profound giftedness in sea of learning disabilities ○ Linguistic-Verbal = capacity to use language to express mind and understand people ○ Logical-mathematical - understand underlying principles of some causal system ○ Spatial - ability to represent spatial world internally in your mind. ○ Musical - capacity to think in music ■ to hear patterns ● recognize them ■ manipulate them ○ Bodily-kinesthetic ■ use of whole body/parts of body to solve a problem, make something, or put on a kind of production ■ gifted with things ● i.e. building ○ Intrapersonal ■ Understanding of yourself; ● knowing who you are ● what you can do ● what you want to do ● how you react ○ Interpersonal ■ understanding other people -their thoughts, feelings, & motives ○ Naturalist ■ ability > discriminate among living things (nomenclature) and sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations) ● Sternberg > broader view of intelligence in traditional g-factor theories ○ successful intelligence - integrated set of information- processing and cognitive abilities needed for life success. ○ triarchic theory of intelligence - (3 distinct but interrelated abilities) ■ analytic intelligence ● judging, evaluating, comparing/contrasting info ■ creative intelligence ● fresh and useful ideas for solving problems ■ practical ● ability to solve problems of everyday life efficiently ● plays role in doing a job well ○ Genetics of intelligence ■ Malifert twins - separated by birth and meet at 45 ■ 50% of genes come from 1st generation relatives ○ Creativity ■ creativity vs. originality ■ originality ● extreme = schizophrenic ● different =/= creative ■ 2 criteria ● original (novel) ● useful (adaptive) to some group of people ■ they break from mental barrier most people have ● think in way no one else have thought of it as ○ redefining problem ○ adaptive-useful ■ most remote network of association than non-creative ■ Remote associations test ● associating words with common traits ■ More creative people = richer neural network, more activity ● use both sides of brain more ■ cognitive processes ● ideational fluency ○
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