Textbook Notes (369,133)
United States (206,214)
Psychology (17)
PSYC 001 (15)
Greg Feist (13)
Chapter 8

Ch.8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 001
Professor
Greg Feist

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Learning defined: ● enduring change in behavior or knowledge due to experience ● way we adapt to dynamic environment ● movement of Short -> long term memory Orienting response - automatic attention shift towards new stimulus Habituation - sensory process where organisms adapt to constant stimulation ● neither are learning b/c each disappear w/ slight change to stimulus Conditioning ● Associative learning > behavior more likely b/c linked w/ certain events 3 main learning models ● affected by sleep ○ facilitates learning & memory ○ spontaneous replay & consolidation of daily events during sleep ● Classical conditioning ○ adaptive in evolution ○ Ivan Pavlov (1849 - 1936) ■ Russian physiologist studying digestion ○ Associationistic learning ■ association: Environmental info linked to another ■ Pavlov’s dogs ● Dogs salivating when person who brings in food (positive stimulus) enters room ● Ivan frustrated, but decided to study this ● Used neutral stimulus (bell) to test response ● Used bell and food together ● Association of bell with food ● Dog salivates when bell is brought in ● conditioned stimulus ○ Unconditioned = unlearned ■ automatic, innate ■ Unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response(UR) ● Forward conditioning - neutral stimulus(bell) present before UCS ○ Conditioned = learned ■ conditioned stimulus(CS), conditioned response (CR) ● backward conditioning - neutral stimulus(bell) follows UCS ○ Multiple UCS & Neutral stimulus(CS) pairings necessary > association ■ CS to produce conditioned response ○ UCS & CS paired/presented close together in time > association forms\ ○ stimulus generalization ■ association b/t UCS & CS > broad stimuli association ○ stimulus discrimination ■ CR occurs to stimulus it was conditioned ○ extinction ■ weakening/disappearing of conditioned response ● Never completely eliminated ● comes back in original setting ■ UCS =/= CS related ○ spontaneous recovery ■ sudden reappearance of extinct response ○ LittleAlbert ■ Watson associated white rats with fear inAlbert ■ Loud sound(UCS) > see rat(CS) ■ started albert (UCR) ■ Watson > father of behaviorism ● Operant conditioning ○ Behavior modification techniques: apply operant conditioning principles to change behavior ○ Process of modifying behavior > manipulating consequences > get predictable outcome ■ Edward L. Thorndike ● rewarding consequences > spontaneous behavior more likely to reoccur ○ law of effect ■ consequence increase/decrease behavior likelihood ■ B.F. Skinner ● disorganized/spontaneous behavior > organized ○ Reinforcer > internal/external event > increases behavior ■ primary reinforcers - innate/satisfy biological needs ■ secondary/conditioned “ “ - learned by association (usually classical) ■ Positive “ “ - stimulus increases behavior likelihood ■ Negative “ “ - removal of stimulus “ “ ● not punishment ○ stimulus decreasing frequency of behavior ○ Punishment ■ positive “ “ - stimulus decreases behavior ■ Negative “ ‘ - behavior decrease by removing stimulus ○ Skinner box ■ reinforces repeated behavior that awards food ● “shaping” ○ extinction occurs > beh avior stops being reinforced ○ applications ■ disorder treatment in humans ■ applied behavior analysis (ABA) - reinforcement/punishment > increase frequency of adaptive behaviors in autistic children ● reduces aggressive behavior ○ Reinforcers schedule ■ schedules of reinforcement - follow behavior under rules ● continuous reinforcement - rewarding behavior @ every occurrence ● Intermittent reinforcement - reward sometimes at every occurrence ○ produces stronger responses ○ schedules of reinforcement - Patterns of intermittent reinforcement ■ basis of reinforcement occurring after set # responses or time since last reinforcement ■ (FR) Fixed ratio schedule - reinforcement follows set response # ● usually response pause, then response rate increase ● steep step-wise pattern in response ■ (VR) Variable ratio schedule - # responses needed for reinforcement varies ● steady response rate ● individual lacks info > responses necessary for reinforcement ■ (FI) Fixed Interval schedule - reinforcement follows first response after a set amount of time ● low response rate after reinforcement ● response rate accelerates as time of reinforcement approaches ■ (VI) Variable Interval schedule: ● First response reinforced after time periods of different durations passed ○ mean interval length of durations set by researcher ○ tends to be for unpredictable situations Conditioned learning models challenged ● Conditioned taste aversion ○ Conditioned taste aversion: Learned avoidance of particular taste when nausea occurred simultaneously ○ Special classical conditioning case ■ neutral/pleasant taste > linked w/ unconditioned causes of nausea ● learned association ○ John Garcia - responsible for describing this theory ■ experiment w/ rat conditioning against taste (saccharin water) they liked ● can taste aversion occur by pairing taste w/ radiation(UCS)? ● How long can taste aversion last w/o repeated radiation exposure? ■ Classical conditioning says > UCS & CS must be paired closely in time ● minutes passed
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