Textbook Notes (368,449)
United States (206,047)
Psychology (17)
PSYC 001 (15)
Greg Feist (13)
Chapter 7

Ch.7_ Memory.docx

6 Pages
80 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 001
Professor
Greg Feist
Semester
Fall

Description
Go to Lesson 8 (Memory) in Udacity Jill Price - Couldn’t forget anything ● Memory of almost everyday since she was 8 ● Memory for everyday when she was 14 ● Instantaneous memories & her IQ is average ● hyperthymestic syndrome (Thymesis means memory in Greek) ○ episodic (of episodes) memory ○ implicit memory - talk, walk but can’t put into words ■ previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences Daniel Tammet recalls Pi to 22,514 digits ● 5+ hours to recite ● world record is 77k ● sees #s as shapes & colors - visualizes #s in landscapes of shapes & colors ○ Reads off #s as he “sees” them. ● Had a seizure at 4 - brain cross-wiring doing something repeatedly reinforces motor neurons so much that it becomes automatic Ch. 7 · Henry Molaison (H.M.) – Hippocampus removed – never retained memory after incident ● Provides evidence of distinct memory types ● No more new long-term memories ● HM & Mirror task ○ tests implicit memory ○ You draw star through mirror w/o looking at paper Memory – store & use information. Not necessarily conscious. 3-stage model of memory – 3 memory types based on duration: Sensory memory ● Fragile information held in original sensory for a brief period ● Sensory neurons respond to sensory stimuli > sending signals to brain for processing ● Brief traces of sensation from neurons firing in brain ○ < 0.5 s – 3 s ● Sensation > first step > long term memory ● Iconic memory – brief visual record left on retina ● Echoic memory – short-term retention of sounds Short-term memory ● Temporary storage of a limited amount before transferred to long-term or forgotten. ● Stays for 2-30 seconds ● Working memory – part of memory required to attend to & solve a problem at hand. We forget after no longer needing information – emphasizes function ○ allows for everyday activities ● Short term memory Capacity - average of 7 items held in short-term memory ● Chunking - transforming what you remember into smaller set of meaningful chunks. ● 3 distinct processes ● Attending stimulus ● Storing stimuli info ● Rehearsing stored process ● Baddeley’s model: st 1 LTM process: focusing & switching attention ● Master attentional control system ● 3 temporary storage systems ○ · Phonological(sounds & language) ○ · Images & spatial relations (visuospatial) ○ · Temporary storage for specific events (buffer) ● Central executive ● Where to focus attention & selectively hones in on specifics aspects of a stimulus o Screens out irrelevant info ● Serial position effect ○ tendency to recall position in list ○ recency effect -> ability to remember end ○ primacy effect -> “ “ beginning · Long-term memory ● includes declarative (episodic, semantic). explicit & implicit memories o Vast information storage for 30 seconds – lifetime ● Visuospatial sketchpad - see ● Responsible for visual and spatial information; provides storage ● Episodic buffer – hearing in your head ○ Related to storage of info for long term memories ● Phonological loop - retain ● Memory for sound/language ○ i.e. Rehearsal ● We first learn implicit procedures > cerebellum & Striatum ● Emotion event > amygdala ○ emotions play key role in remembering & retrieving information ■ genetic processes - build proteins and synaptic connections b/t neurons ● proteins stimulate formation ■ biochemical processes ● norepinephrine > strengthens synaptic connection b/t neurons ○ more neuroplasticity ■ emotional memories less accurate than non-emotional ● emotions can distort memories ● consciously & explicitly remember personal event of trying to recall an answer in an essay exam > hippocampus ● 4 steps ○ Encoding ■ focuses on something new, take it in, process new info ■ focus > attention > drives encoding process ■ 2 types: ● automatic processing - encoding info w/ little effort or conscious attention ● effortful processing - encoding info when we carefully pay attention & put effort ■ Deeper encoding processes > better recall ■ Levels of processing ● structural - Shallow process ● Phonetic ● Semantic - Deep processing - related to meaning ■ Mnemonic device - method to remember information ○ Consolidation ■ Establishing/stabilizing/solidifying memory ■ Sleep essential > consolidates memories ● negative effect on memory when deprived ○ Storage ■ retention of memory over time ■ 3 ways to store ● Hierarchies - organize pieces of information from most specific -> most general ● schemas: mental framework > develops from experiences in particular people, objects, events ○ influence attention & absorption of new knowledge ■ more likely to notice things that fit into schemas ○ help understand and organize experiences ■ aid in memory and recall ● also biases perception & memory ○ have tendency to remain unchanged even when presented w/ new info that contradicts ● Associative network: Chain of associations b/t related concepts ○ Retrieval > recovery of information stored in memory False memory ● Can be created ● usually leads to false accusations ● memories are malleable ● Limited possibilities ○ separate witnesses ○ types of words people use to ask question can influence memory ■ i.e. word bias ● can modif
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 001

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit