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Psychology (17)
PSYC 001 (15)
Greg Feist (13)
Chapter 3


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PSYC 001
Greg Feist

The brain Cells as building blocks ● Two types of cells in CNS ○ Glial Cells: “Glue” cells of Myelin sheath ■ facilitate neural transmission (like insulation) ■ Neurons: Nerve cells; receive, integrate, and transmit neurons Sensory & motor (moving your body) neurons ● Efferent - away (Sensory neurons) ● Afferent - coming in (Motor neurons) Sensory receptors in skin goes through affluent -> interneuron -> section of spinal cord -> efferent -> bicep muscles - muscle contracts Right motor cortex controls right side of body Structure of Neurons ● soma - nucleus ● Axon - Myelin sheath ● dendrites ● Synapse - Terminal button Neural communication: Overview of the action potential: Resting potential Action potential Refractory period we forget to learn more Frontal lobes go crazy when you first start to learn. you become an expert when they stop working a lot during activity. Resting potential of a neuron ● inactive resting state ● More negative charge inside membrane ○ Due mostly to negatively charged proteins. (A-) ● More positive charge outside membrane ○ 10x more sodium (Na+) outside than inside membrane ● Resting state of a neuronal membrane: negative charge inside; positive charge outside (polarized) ● Changes from other neurons accumulate in the neuron ● once charge become sufficiently positive (reaches threshold; depolarization), they change the permeability of the membrane, and anA.P. occurs as an all-or-none response Action Potential Over time 1. Resting: all channels closed 2. A.P.(Action Potential): sodium channels open (depolarization) 3. Novocane shut these sodium channels and thereby blocks action potential (numbing area) Return to resting state: potassium channels open (repolarization) 4. Refractory period - return to resting potential Neurotransmission: Every neuron communicates in this way: ● Synaptic Vesicles - Axom sent down, creating impact, jumpstarts action potential. Sent down this into presynaptic neuron ○ Tiny sacs in the terminal buttons that contain neurotransmitters. ● Presynaptic neuron ● Action potential stimulates the chemicals into the terminal button. ● Postsynaptic neuron - Underneath the terminal button ● Channels receive neurotransmitters from postsynaptic neuron. ● Reuptake = neuotransmitters go back up. Synaptic transmission: communication between neurons ● AP weakens (electrically) the vesicles to release neurotransmitter into synapse. ● This is a chemical, not electrical process. Kinda both. ● Each neuron releases only one combination neurotransmitter. They only do one of them. (i.w. dopamine and epinephrine.) ● Transmitters bind to receptors in post-synaptic neuron. They hang out in soma and send down a charge when enough builds up. common neurotransmitters. ● Acetylcholine drinking sleeping, learning, memory, and muscular movement.A decrease is a foreshadowing of diseases like.. ○ alzheimers (undersupply) ○ Dementia - forgetting things. neurotransmitters stop working, so they don’t learn or remember. The ones they do have degrade. ● Norepinephrine (term for adrenaline) alertness, attention, wakefulness, emotional arousal, eating ○ depression (undersupply) - seratonin is involved in this and anxiety ○ Antidepressants stimulate neural epinephrine ○ Asingle neurochemical can lead to such dramatic changes. ● Glutamate ○ Main excitatory neurotransmitters ○ i.e. epi-pen - needed to counter allergic reactions or some other disease ○ inhibition and excitation of neurons are needed ● Serotonin, sleep, temperature regulation, aggression ○ Anxiety & Depression (undersupply) ○ Pro-social attributes ● Dopamine voluntary movement, emotional arousal, mood & pleasure ○ Parkinsons (undersupply) - muscular disorder, usually for older people, motor control inability ○ Schizophrenia (oversupply) - Decreasing dopamine is a cure ● GABA ○ Main inhibitory neurotransmitter ○ Slows CNS function (alcohol) ○ opposite of glutamate ○ Alcohol depresses, where the brain gets shut down, which explains blackouts, memory loss, etc. You feel uninhibited at first, which feels good. Overview of Brain Regions (3 major ones) ● Hindbrain/Brain stem ● Midbrain (often part of brainstem) ● Forebrain Anatomy of the nervous system ● Hindbrain/brainstem: survival - use them synonymously. same thing really. ● medulla: bodily functions such as heart rate and respiration (injured in comas; life-support) ● Pons: (“Bridge”): part of reticular formation & bridges (nerves) the lower & higher levels of nervous systems ● Cerebellum (“little brain” in Latin): movement and physical coordination; timing (as in music) ● Medulla is all
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