Abnormal Psychology Chapter 4 Textbook Notes

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PSYC 110
Dr.Steven Del Chiaro

Chapter 4 Textbook Notes Research Methods 1. Basic Components of a Research Study a. Hypothesis i. An educated guess to be supported by data ii. Testability 1. The ability to support the hypothesis b. Independent variable i. Aspect manipulated by experimenter c. Dependent variable i. Aspect is measured and expected to be changed by the independent variable d. Two Forms of Validity i. Internal validity 1. Extend to which you are confident that the independent variable is causing the dependent variable to change ii. External Validity 1. How well the results relate to things outside your study 2. How well your findings describe similar individuals who were not among the study subjects 2. Confound a. Any fact occurring in a study that makes the results uninterpretable because a variable other than the independent variable may also affect the dependent variable 3. Control Group a. People are similar to the experimental group in every way except that members of the experimental group are exposed to the independent variable and those in the control group are not 4. Randomization a. Process of assigning people to different research groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being place in any group 5. Analog Models a. In controlled conditions of laboratory aspects that are comparable (analogous) to the phenomenon under study 6. Generalizability a. Extend to which results apply to everyone with a particular disorder 7. Statistical Vs. Clinical Significance 8. The “Average” Client a. Patient Uniformity myth i. Leads researchers to make inaccurate generalizations about disorders and their treatments 9. Types of Research Methods a. Studying Individual Cases b. Research by Correlation i. Correlation – a statistical relationship between two variables ii. Example: schizophrenia is related to the size of ventricles in the brain iii. Positive correlation 1. Great strength/quantity in one variable is associated with great strength/quantity in another variable iv. Correlation coefficient 1. Between -1.00 and +1.00 2. Plus sign = a positive relationship 3. The 1.00 represents a “perfect” relationship 4. 0.00 = no relationship exists 5. -1.00 = negative relationship v. Directionality 1. We don’t know if there is a relationship between A and B c. Epidemiological Research i. Epidemiology 1. Study of incidence, distribution, and consequences of a particular problem or set of problems in one or more populations d. Research by Experiment i. Experiment 1. Involves manipulation of an independent variable and observation of its effects ii. Control Groups 1. Placebo Effect a. When behavior changes as a result of a person’s expectation of change rather than as a result of any manipulation by an experiment 2. Placebo Control Groups a. A placebo control group is not given the medication. 3. Double-Blind Control a. A variant of the placebo control group procedure b. Participants are unaware of what group they are in or what treatment they are given, researchers are also unaware.
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