SWK 301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Problem Gambling, Behavioral Addiction, Internet Addiction Disorder

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Intro to Social Work Chapter 10
What is addiction?
o Use of substance or behavior that impacts:
Relationships
Ability to function
Ability to cope with ordinary tasks and activities
Thoughts
Emotions
Interactions with others
Family
Community members
Psychological state
o Substance us is ubiquitous; may or may not be problematic
o Addiction, or dependence, is more than just a behavioral
disorder; it is a chronic, relapsing disease
o The term addiction is NOT clinical but is still commonly used
o Process addictions are problematic compulsive behaviors like
gambling, internet addiction, sex addiction, exercise addiction,
eating addiction
o The relevant category in the DSM is addictive disorders.
Substance Abuse includes maladaptive patterns of use despite
consequences
o Over 500,000 deaths per year
o Health-care costs
o Rapes, assaults, burglaries, thefts, and child abuse
Substance Use Disorder: mental disorder associated with use of a
substance
Substance dependence: continued use of craving associated with
greater tolerance
o Research links gambling disorder to substance-related disorders
based on their origin in the brain
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Causes of Substance Abuse
o Genetics
Account for about half the likelihood of developing
addiction
Family history of addiction increases one’s chance of
becoming an addict
o Environment
Affects emergence of genetic predispositions
Impact of culture, family, and peer group
Co-Dependency
o Other people in the user’s environment may enable the substance
abuse
May appear as people pleasers
Denying themselves and their own needs
Busy taking care of others
Addictive Substances/Behaviors
o Alcohol: most commonly used psychoactive substance
!/4th of alcohol users have an alcohol abuse problem,
including alcoholism
Binge Drinking: reaching 0.08 BAC within 2 hours of
starting to drink
Frequent alcohol use can harm liver, pancreas, immune
system, and lead to cancer
0.08 is legally drunk
o Prescription drugs
16 million Americans may use Rx drugs for nonmedical
reasons each year
Older adults are at higher risk for Rx drug abuse and
related consequences
Abuse is increasing among US teens
o Illegal drugs and marijuana
Most commonly used are cannabis, solvent inhalants,
amphetamines, and opioids
Designer drugs are created by scientists to be technically
legal analogues of illegal drugs
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Illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have
increased in states with legal medical marijuana
Marijuana use is largely accepted, but can lead to brain
impairment and organ damage
Illegal drug dealing disrupts lives of users and dealers alike,
resulting in jail time and social and physical consequences
Violence in the drug trade also poses threats even to people
uninvolved in drugs
o Anabolic steroids
Similar to testosterone and have legitimate medical uses
Users may spend a lot of money and time on steroid use,
which indicates addiction
May increase irritability and aggression, and have
significant negative withdrawal effects
o Tobacco and nicotine
Industry finally acknowledged tobacco was addictive in
1997
Nicotine is the psychoactive ingredient causing addiction
Linked to serious health problems like lung cancer,
emphysema, heart disease
Nicotine addiction is difficult to overcome, especially since
as a habit it is somewhat socially acceptable, and cues to
use abound
Wellbutrin and Chantix have been prescribed for smoking
cessation
o Food and caffeine
The brain mechanisms that make drugs addictive can also
make food addictive
Obesity and high weight: fifth leading cause of death in
world, second most preventable cause of death in United
States.
Caffeine is socially accepted and cues to use it abound as
well
Caffeine consumption can cause sleep problems, and
withdrawal can lead to depression
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