SWK 301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14, 16, 17: Welfare Capitalism, Work Ethic, Doubling Time

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Intro to Social Work Ch. 14, 16, 17
History of Work
History of work
o Linked to survival
o Society greatly values a strong work ethic
o Work ethic: work determines how one is viewed by others in
society as well, and their work skills impact their ability to deal
with economic shifts
o Traditional societies: people worked according to age and
physical abilities
Division of labor: organization of work by task and
responsibility
o Agricultural Era: 1630 to 1760
Farming out: family members worked elsewhere for
food/shelter
Indenturing: workers from the family to other farms
temporarily
Apprenticing: family members to learn a trade
o Industrial Revolution: 1760 to 1840
Marked by the introduction of wage laborers
Jobs for the unemployed in public works programs
Women increasingly worked in other occupations like
nursing and teaching
o Urbanization: 1860 to 1950
Business owners began to engage in welfare capitalism in
order to try to maintain a stable workforce and discourage
unionizing
Welfare secretaries: hired to help workers but were
resented for their loyalty to management
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2
As welfare movement declined, the human relationship
school of management emerged, focusing on changes in a
diversifying workforce and trying to maximize productivity
while minimizing turnover and strife
o Information Age: 1960 to Present
Trends include more women in the workplace
Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)
Employer provided benefits to workers to access
counseling, legal services, and more, hoping to improve
job performance and productivity
Social workers provide bulk of EAP services
Current Social Trends Related To Work
Work at home
o 1/3 of freelancers/contractors work from home
Aging workforce
o Millennials are about to be 36% of workforce
Gender pay gap starts to close
o Smaller for younger workers
Career growth delayed
o Median wage not reached until 30
Global markets become more integrated
o Diversity impossible to ignore
Job searches are continuous
o We average 11 jobs from age 18-34
Work-Related Issues
Unemployment
o Frictional unemployment: period between a worker being
fired/quitting and a new worker being hired
o Structural unemployment: economic conditions mismatch
available workers and available jobs—workforce skills don’t
match opportunities
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3
o Cyclical unemployment: decreased demand leads to layoffs and
downsizing
Underemployment
o Employment in an job below one’s level of qualifications, often
underpaid
o Leads to work dissatisfaction and inadequate income
o Resolving these issues would lead to less corporate profits,
which is unlikely
Minimum wage
o Increasing the minimum wage could stimulate the economy
Gender Inequality
o Gender gap: women with full-time jobs are paid about 82% of
what men are paid
o Women only make up about 20% of legislative positions in the
US
Harassment
o Enduring offensive conduct becomes a condition of continued
employment
o Can lead to discrimination changes and lawsuits
Lack of Union Participate
o Just above 10% in the US
o Improve working conditions
o More generous health benefits
Occupational Health Hazards
o Illnesses, diseases, and disorders resulting from work
o The effects of stress on worker health are a major current focus
Your Career in the World of Work
Social work opportunities
o Direct practice to individuals, families, and groups
o Service systems including housing, health, and education
o Policy development at the local, state, and federal level
o Advocacy in unions, associations, or membership affiliations
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