SWK 420 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Evidence-Based Practice, Attachment Therapy
6 views5 pages
For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.
SWK 420 (8/28) Chapter 1
Reasons Why Research is a Professional Necessity:
• Distinguish good research from bad research
• Be accountable to the clients, agencies and communities you serve
• Evaluating your practice is required by CSWE
• Social Work Code of Ethics requires that you monitor and evaluate your practice and
develop new knowledge
• To engage in evidenced-based practice
Social Work Research should:
• Guide practitioners: tells them what practices and programs are effective and under what
• Discriminate what helps from hinders: there are programs that caused harm (DARE,
conversion therapy, holding therapy)
• Should provide practical knowledge that helps practitioners: we need more translational
research that can directly affect practitioners. More intervention research is needed
o Most social work researchers begin as practitioners
“When somebody on staff asks what we should do to address a problem, the first
questions I now ask are ‘What does the research say? What is the best evidence
base? What information can we gather to determine if it will fit in different
contexts.’” – Jim Hmurovich, BA, MS Ed, President & CEO, Prevent Child Abuse
• Be skeptical of what you read, especially on the Internet. Ask the following questions:
o Who is the author? Credible?
o What is the author’s perspective? Bias?
o Who/What is the publishing source?
o What is the supporting documentation?
o How do you find the information?
• For example, Psychology Today, it is not peer-reviewed, but references peer reviewed
works. It also gives a lot of opinions from professionals that are not backed by empirical
Predatory Journals: Pay to Publish
• Breaking the Ice with Buxom and Grapefruits
• Two authors used a random surrealism generator to make nonsensical sentences that were
grammatically correct, but totally non sensical. They entitled their paper, Breaking the
Ice with Buxom and Grapefruits. Two journals published their articles.
• “Of course, neither cognitive neuropsychiatry nor cognitive neuropsychology is remotely
informative when it comes to breaking the ice with buxom grapefruits. When pondering
three-in-a-bed romps with broken mules, therefore, one must refrain, at all costs, from
driving a manic-depressive lemon-squeezer through ham (Baumard & Brugger, 2016).”
SWK 420 (8/28) Chapter 1
Figure EBP Model:
Evidence based practice is a process rather than a one-time application of an effective
treatment (Shlonsky and Gibbs, 2004), and the process can be seen as somewhat cyclic
when applied to an individual client.
An example contained in Shlonsky and Wagner (in press) illustrates this point. Using the
newer Haynes, Devereaux, & Guyatt (2002) model, current best evidence serves as an
entry point whereby an actuarial (i.e., statistically based) assessment of risk can be
employed to target scarce resources to clients at highest risk.
Relevant data sources on current best evidence include the Cochrane and Campbell
Collaboration databases, as well as databases such as Medline, Psycinfo, CINAHL,
Social Services Abstracts, and others. The contextual assessment (Gambrill, 1997) uses
practitioner expertise to elicit key strengths and needs as well as client preferences as
movement is made toward service provision. At this point, current best evidence is again
sought regarding other assessment tools (e.g., depression inventories, child behavioral
indicators) and the effectiveness of various service options (e.g., Multi-systemic Therapy,
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for depression, parenting classes). What is found is
integrated with client state/circumstances and preferences/actions, again drawing on
clinical expertise to integrate data from various sources.
Steps in Evidence-Based Practice:
1. Formulate a Question to Answer Practice Needs.
2. Search for the Evidence.
3. Critically Appraise the Relevant Studies You Find.
4. Blend Empirical Evidence with Clinical Expertise to Choose and Intervention.
5. Evaluation and Feedback.
What is a “Research Question?”
• Should produce an informative answer and be very specific.
o Bad: What is justice?
o Good: Will a Saturday morning psychoeducational program for first-time
shoplifters prevent subsequent arrests for shoplifting?
Step 1: Formulate a Question to Answer Practice Needs
• Question Formulation: CIAO
o C: Client problem and population
o I: Intervention being considered (What are you going to do with the client?)
o A: Alternative intervention (Another empirically supported intervention?)
o O: Outcome (What outcome do you expect to see or hope to see?)
• CIAO helps you to formulate a research question.
The “Well-Built” Question Example:
• Specific population and problem—relapse among adult heroin users.
• Possible course of action (intervention)—medication with suboxone + Group CBT
• Alternative course of action (alternative intervention)—12 step program (NA)
• Desired Outcome—sobriety 1 year later
Step 2: Search for the Evidence
• Searches of professional literature databases.
• USM Libraries: Google scholar; NREPP; Campbell Collaboration
• Search Terms: