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Chapter 6

BIO 103 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Genetic Engineering, Species Ii

Course Code
BIO 103
Kristen Vadasz

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BIO 103 – Intro to Bio Tech
Chapter 6
-Some genes found only in humans, some genes found in both humans and other species, some
parts of our DNA found in nearly every other species
-Bacteria = very small, single-celled life forms that can reproduce quickly
-Researchers studying genomes of difff species to learn about similar, but more complicated
genome of humans
Genetic Engineering
-Genetic researchers cut apart genome to figure out what individ parts do
-Genetic engineering – cutting and pasting of genes
-Example – researchers want to find out what diff genes do in particular flowering plant
a. Take seed and get in genome  cut single gene and let seed grow  plant doesn’t dev petals
means gene cut out is important for making flowers
i. Can use this info to learn about genes in other species
ii. May help researchers find similar genes in other plants
-Use of living things to make products
a. Not new: yeast to make bread rise, bacteria to ferment beer and wine
-Selective breeding  selectively choose which two sexes of a species to mate
a. Many of today’s crops (i.e. wheat and rice) dev through thousands of years of breeding
b. Farm animals and pets also part of this process
-Genetic engineering in biotech is faster and more precise than selective breeding
-Insert, remove, make changes to genes to create new forms of plants and animals in one
-Transgenic plant/animal = one that contains genes from another species
-Improved forms of crops - produce crops that can resist insects and disease  reduce need for
insecticides and pesticides; crops that give bigger harvest, contain more proteins and nutrients
-Super-sized, super-fast-growing animals
-Livestock that produce more young  could help increase food production
-More healthful foods, vegtetables that stay ripe longer, plants and animals that can survive harsh
conditions, bacteria that eat up oil spills and waste, animals as organ donors
-Transgenic plants and animals that make important drugs  make it more available to ppl
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