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Chapter 9

BUS 326 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Formal Group, Role Conflict, Group Conflict


Department
Business Management
Course Code
BUS 326
Professor
Diane Impagliazzo
Chapter
9

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Ch 9
9-1. Group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting, interdependent, who have come
together to achieve particular objectives. There are two different kinds of groups: informal and
formal. Formal group is defined as the organization’s structure with designated work
assignments establishing tasks. Informal group is defined as neither formally structures nor
organizationally determined.
9-2. The five stage group development model characterizes groups as moving through five
distinct stages in the group process. They are forming, storming, norming, performing and
adjourning.
9-3. Roles are the expected behavior individuals will take on in a group such as the leader or the
task master. Each role is assigned a certain identity that explains expected attitudes and
behaviors that correspond with the role identity. Each individual has their own point of view of
how they are supposed to act in the context of the group, this is called role perception. Role
expectations looks at how others believe a person should act in given situation. Role conflict
occurs when the expected behaviors don’t match up with the behaviors being exhibited.
9-4. Norms are standards of behavior that are acceptable by group members. There are different
types of norms such as performance norms that look at an acceptable work level or quality or
appearance norms about what to wear. Social arrangement norms look at acceptable
relationships and allocation of resources norms look at how things are distributed. Status can
have an impact a number of things in groups. First of all, it can impact norms within a group
where high-status members don’t feel the need to conform to group norms, but can pressure
others to conform. Second, it can impact group interaction where members who hold more
status tend to be more assertive and can hinder new ideas being presented. Finally, it impacts
perceived equity in a group which will influence how engaged others are in the group process.
9-5. Size is an important factor in group behavior as well and impacts the behavior in groups.
The larger the group the harder it is to get contribution by all members and do so in a timely
manner. Whereas small groups can be limited in their problem-solving ability and the
availability of resources could be limited. There are some detrimental behaviors that can occur
around group size.
9-6. If performance norms are higher than a more cohesive group will rise to the occasion and
will achieve a high level of productivity. Things they can do to foster cohesiveness is to keep
groups small, encourage all members understanding of group goals, increase the time the group
spends together and heighten their perceived status. In addition, by stimulating competition with
other groups, members will find ways to work together. Managers can also reward the group as
a whole and not just individuals within the group. Eventually they can physically isolate the
group by sending them on a retreat or giving them their own work space. Their actions can
significantly influence group cohesiveness.
9-7. Diversity appears to increase group conflict, especially in the early stages of a group’s
tenure, which often lowers group morale and raises dropout rates.
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