SOC 105 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Social Reproduction, Gender Role, Cognitive Development

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socialization+-the+social+processes+through+which+children+develop+an+
awareness+of+social+norms+and+values+and+achieve+a+distinct+sense+of+self.
social+reproduction+-the+process+of+perpetuating+values,+norms,+and+social+
practices+through+socialization,+which+leads+to+structural+continuity+over+time.
agents+of+socialization+-groups+or+social+contexts+within+which+processes+of+
socialization+take+place.
peer+group+-a+friendship+group+composed+of+individuals+of+similar+age+and+social+
status.
age-grade+-the+system+found+in+small+traditional+cultures+by+which+people+
belonging+to+a+similar+age+group+are+categorized+together+and+hold+similar+rights+
and+obligations.
mass+media+-forms+of+communication,+such+as+newspapers,+magazines,+radio,+
and+television,+designed+to+reach+mass+audiences.
social+roles+-socially+defined+expectations+of+an+individual+in+a+given+status+or+
social+position.
identity+-the+distinctive+characteristics+of+a+person's+or+group's+character+that+
relate+to+who+he+is+and+what+is+meaningful+to+him.+Some+of+the+main+sources+of+
identity+include+gender,+sexual+orientation,+nationality+or+ethnicity,+and+social+
class.
social+identity+-the+characteristics+that+are+attributed+to+an+individual+by+others.
self-identity+-the+ongoing+process+of+self-development+and+definition+of+our+
personal+identity+through+which+we+formulate+a+unique+sense+of+ourselves+and+
our+relationship+to+the+world+around+us.
cognition+-human+thought+processes+involving+perception,+reasoning,+and+
remembering.
social+self+-the+basis+of+self-consciousness+in+human+individuals,+according+to+
the+theory+of+G.H.+Mead.+The+social+self+is+the+identity+conferred+upon+an+
individual+by+the+reactions+of+others.+A+person+achieves+self-consciousness+by+
becoming+aware+of+this+social+identity.+
self-consciousness+-awareness+of+one's+distinct+social+identity+as+a+person+
separate+from+others.+Human+beings+are+not+born+with+self-consciousness+but+
acquire+an+awareness+of+self+as+a+result+of+early+socialization.+The+learning+of+
language+is+of+vital+importance+to+the+processes+by+which+the+child+learns+to+
become+a+self-conscious+reading.
generalized+other+-a+concept+in+the+theory+of+G.H.+Mead,+according+to+which+
the+individual+comes+to+understand+the+general+values+of+a+given+group+or+
society+during+the+socialization+process.
sensorimotor+stage+-according+to+Jean+Piaget,+a+stage+of+human+cognitive+
development+in+which+a+child's+awareness+of+his+or+her+environment+is+
dominated+by+perception+and+touch.
preoperational+stage+-a+stage+of+cognitive+development,+in+Piaget's+theory,+in+
which+the+child+has+advanced+sufficiently+to+master+basic+modes+of+logical+
thought.
egocentric+-according+to+Piaget,+the+characteristic+ quality+of+a+child+during+the+
early+years+of+his+or+her+life.+Egocentric+thinking+involves+understanding+objects+
and+events+in+the+environment+solely+in+terms+of+one's+own+position.
concrete+operational+stage+-a+stage+of+cognitive+development,+as+formulated+by+
Piaget,+in+which+the+child's+thinking+is+based+primarily+on+physical+perception+of+
the+world.+In+this+phase,+the+child+is+not+yet+capable+of+dealing+with+abstract+
concepts+or+hypothetical+situations.
formal+operational+stage+-according+to+Piaget's+theory,+a+stage+of+cognitive+
development+at+which+the+growing+child+becomes+capable+of+handling+abstract+
concepts+and+hypothetical+situations.
race+socialization+-the+specific+verbal+and+nonverbal+messages+that+older+
generations+transmit+to+younger+generations+regarding+the+meaning+and+
significance+of+race.
gender+role+socialization+-the+learning+of+gender+roles+through+social+factors+
such+as+schooling,+the+media,+and+family.
gender+roles+-social+roles+assigned+to+each+sex+and+labeled+as+masculine+or+
feminine.
Chapter(4(-Socialization(and(the(Life(Course
12:33+AM
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