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FromOutlineToBody-LongVersion.docx

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Department
English
Course
ENG-101
Professor
Walter J.
Semester
Fall

Description
1 of 5 pages From Outline to Body Paragraph When you write a paper, you are much like a talk show host. Before guests begin speaking, the host introduces them. The host also controls the flow of conversation. First someone with a chronic disease might be asked what it’s like to live with this condition. Then the host might ask a medical doctor to define the disease and explain how it’s treated. Finally, the host might tell viewers where to get more information. The sources in your paper are like your guests. You need to introduce them, highlight the most important information they have to share, and create relationships between them and other sources. You can do this with • Signal phrases • Transitions • Quotation sandwiches First, skim the outline of a short essay on multitasking. Then read the model to see how signal phrases, transitions, and quotation sandwiches have been used to develop the outline. Outline: What Research SaysAbout Multitasking I. Introduction A. Hook B. Background C. Three-part thesis: People think multitasking is efficient, but it is not because of 1. switching costs 2. risks of distraction 3. interference with long-term memory II. Switching Costs A.Can be a few tenths of a second B. Can be as much as 40% of work time (“Multitasking,” 2006) III. Risks of Distraction A. Underestimated by most people B. Driver distracted for .5 second can crash (“Multitasking,” 2006) IV. Interference with long-term memory (Neery, 2007) A.Undistracted learners use hippocampus 1. Hippocampus forms long-term memories 2. Learners can recall/apply what they learned B. Distracted learners use striatum 1. Striatum builds habits 2. Learners have trouble recalling/applying new information V. Conclusion A.Summary B. Clincher: Why it matters or What comes next 2 of 5 pages Model: What Research SaysAbout Multitasking Many people believe that multitasking makes them more efficient. However, researchers have discovered that multitasking has hidden preview your costs: every switch of attention takes time, distraction creates risk, and main points multitaskers do not form long-term memories. Every time people switch tasks, it takes at least a few tenths of a second to stop doing one task and begin doing another. Switching from making a sandwich to answering the phone does not take long. However, Dr. David Meyer, a cognitive scientist, found that switching between signal phrase complex tasks “can cost as much as 40 percent of someone’s productive mixed quotation/ time” (as cited in “Multitasking,” 2006). paraphrase In Meyer’s view, the biggest drawback to multitasking is not inefficiency, transition from but the risks created by distraction. People can easily understand the switching to risks damage a distracted air traffic controller could cause. However, they may intro to new topic not realize that a driver who loses focus for just half a second could crash into something that a driver who was paying attention could easily avoid paraphrase (“Multitasking,” 2006). For students, the biggest drawback to multitasking may be that it quotation sandwich interferes with memory. People who are switching between tasks do not intro to new topic engage the part of the brain that forms long-term memories. Dr. Russell Poldrack, professor of psychology at UCLA, told NPR’s Lynn Neery (2007) source material that “when you learn while you’re focused on a task, you engage...the hippocampus” (a part of the brain that stores conscious memories). Those who try to learn while doing multiple tasks engage the basal ganglia (a part your summary of the brain that builds habits). As a result, multitaskers are less able to of what this means remember what they learned and to apply it in new situations. or why it matters Other studies have confirmed that multitasking is not an efficient way transition to learn (“Multitasking,” 2006). Multitaskers may feel efficient, but they review of key points lose time every time they refocus their attention. Multitaskers are also distracted, sometimes dangerously so. For students, th
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