• There was a shift from role to self in marriage. From the role of the family to self
fulfillment and pleasure.
• Suddenly, marriage is not a role you play, not what you are supposed to be doing
for you family, but finding satisfaction personally and findin individual meaning.
• Having a status comes with a role (like wife, comes with a role.)
• How marriage benefits you, your personal gain.
• How couples cohabiting often were searching for careers and school before
• Marriage is like a “badge” with protection and stability the end product of a
Companionship Individualized st
Way to these things (build life together) End point/ badge or reward. Arrive 1 .
role satisfaction comes from fulfilling Selfnegotiate roles and they are
your role. Partner helps you grow and flexible. Communication is huge.
adds to your life.
• It was proposed that instead of gay marriage, something like marriage. The judge
thought it would create a stigma and worsen the situation.
• ADC used to just be for widows. Then they created AFDC and TANF and welfare
for “lone parents” whether widowed or divorced. They had a hard time supporting
families not based on marriage.
• GI Bill was only meant for men, but they extended it to women.
• Opened birth control for everyone, divorcing sex from marriage.
• Illegitimacy: illegitimate children were to have no less care than children born
within the confines of marriage (it didn’t used to be this way).
• EITC (Earn Income tax credit) so that if you get a job, you can get taxes back,
paying people to work. Providing the satisfaction of work.
• Racism is the process. Racial Inequality is the result of racism.
• Race we put people in groups based on physical and biological characteristics
attached to certain emotional, psychological, and intellectual. (Social group.
Outsiders tell you what race you are.
• Ethnicity: group membership by culture and language, shared symbols and
history. (Not necessarily about differencing worth and power, but tied to some
• Inequalit opposition or absence of any of the following three:
o Equality of opportunity everyone starts at the same place.
o Equality of results some will be wealthier, more education, more of a
proportionate representation. (of bus drivers, if there are 6% Asian in the
population, there should be 6% Asian bus drivers.)
o Equity less distance between the bottom and the top. People at the top
make 10% more (instead of 30%) than at the bottom, and they have 10%
The Key Social Institutions: The Family: Every society has something they call a family and they organize around
o Organizes reproduction in the society.
o Socializes children.
o Organizes the way the society solves the problems of reproduction.
• Functionalists see the family as something that keeps the society going.
Functions that every family in every society does:
1) Reproduction: without it, societies die out. Individuals decide to take on roles
like mother and father.
2) Regulation of sexual behavior: every society has some kind of incest (taboo) :
they aren’t all the same, but the family tells us this and regulates this.
3) Socialization: training so you can take on other rules in society, from potty
training to language to job preparation.
4) Protection, affection and companionship: families provide these and this is
where we go for these things. (People argue that the family isn’t doing what they
used to) protection from the environment, starvation, etc. The family
accomplishes the distribution of resources form earners to nonearners. If
someone is not in the position to care for themselves, and are nonearners, the
society figures out how to take care of and deal with them.
5) Social Placement: family gives you your identity tells you where you belong in
the society and in the family. Class status passed on to you. (racial, ethnic, and
Feminists Conflict theorists:
Critiques #4, that women’s role is whatever. (gender roles and divisions). They
argue everything else, too.
Class conflict Theorists:
#5 inheritance should ensure wealth in the family. Family connection is the basis
of inheritance. It’s not in the best interest for everyone, just those who have
#3 socialization we learn that we are entitled to our father’s money.
Education: Solves the requirement of socialization: to increase in knowledge – the
family cannot pass down everything. Also teach immigrants.
Economy: produce and distribute natural resources. Converts them to things we use and
consume. Feeds, protects, and uses natural resources.
• Liberalism: based on rights of the individual. They are separate from society and
can think for themselves. State protects against anarchy and also against
• Social contract with the state: wel