Demography: population studies (pop studies). Macro. Very broad, Concerned with size,
distribution, and how it changes and grows over time.
• Population changes that we expect all societies to encounter at the macro lever.
• Distribution: where people live and when.
History of the world population.
Demographic transition: (the change we expect) they want you to think about global
population and how long the human population has been on earth and how it has grown
• There has been an expansion of human population in the recent era.
• Even more recent, in 1750, population was about 800 million. In 1950, about 2.5
• Late 18 century through 20 century, rapid population growth. We expect every
society to go through this rapid population growth period.
• A society has completed the demographics when it reaches replacement fertility
(2.1 live births per woman).
• All societies are pronatalists, they have the norm that everyone should be
• Classic demographic transition theory is about modernization. Preserving life
longer, increasing in knowledge, better economic growth, industrialization.
Demographic Transition Theory:
• Human beings are not going to stop the morality transition. No one wants to die,
so if they can prolong their lives, they will. Society had to develop it’s economy
for this to happen.
• Fertility Transit : the technological advances lead people to a lifestyle where
the demand for children went down. The lifestyle does not encourage children.
(urbanization, women’s education and career, etc).
• Populations only grow in 3 ways:
o Morality (death)
o Fertility (love)
o Gain/lose by migration (adventure)
• China’s onechild policy: (government enforced) that every family would focus
on one child to pour resources in to the one child to have opportunities of the 1
• Expansion of economy = decline of mortality= increase of population.
• China was already large; they had a low standard of living already. They had a
fear that they would not be able to fee their society.
• Lesserdeveloped nations experience the benefit of the technologies from the
western world at a much slower rate.
• Legislative Policy they “sold” to the population.
• Pressures: the school, job, etc, to go abroad and get a good job so they can take
care of their parents. • Policies like Social Security allow fertility rated to decline and take pressure off
people to have kids to support them. China didn’t have this.
• The Singleton’s goal is to get great jobs and pull China into 1 world status. They
had a role to succeed and take care of their parents. In this context, if it was a girl,
she had to be as good as a boy. This was a fast track to gender equality with
education and jobs.
• Socialism is a planned economy. They wan