Textbook Notes (363,260)
United States (204,477)
ANT 121 (10)
Castro (10)
Chapter 5

ANT121 Human Culture Ember and Ember, Ch. 5

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Syracuse University
ANT 121

ANT 121: Embers Ch. 5 Economics 12/10/2013 9:07:00 AM TERMS: Balanced reciprocity Cash crops Commercialization Corvée Extensive (shifting) cultivation Food production Foraging Generalized reciprocity General-purpose money Horticulture Hunter-gatherers Intensive agriculture Market (or commercial) exchange Pastoralism Peasants Reciprocity Redistribution Slash-and-burn GETTING FOOD  Foraging—obtains wild plant and animal resources through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing  Modern foragers—hunter-gatherers live in marginal areas o Cautious about making inferences to past foragers 1. Modern foragers live in generally less abundant environments than past foragers 2. Modern foragers have evolved and are continuing to evolve so are not identical to past foragers 3. Modern foragers interact with societies that did not exist in the past  Australian Aborigines o Desert environment of the Ngatatjara, sparsely populated o Traditionally nomadic and isolated o Now, live in small villages and forage sometimes  General features of foragers o Nomadic lifestyle o Sparsely populated areas o Do not recognize individual’s land rights o Generally no political leaders or social hierarchy o Division of labor based on age and gender  Men—hunting and fishing, Women—gathering Tlinget (Southeastern Asia) and Nimpkish (British Colombia)— 3-tiered class system, outlier from traditional foragers  Food Production o Revolution to cultivating and domesticating plants and animals occurred 10,000 years ago o 3 major types of food production systems 1. Horticulture—the growing of crops of all kinds with relatively simple tools and methods without permanently cultivated fields. Generally yields more food than foragers, can support larger communities, have social differentiation a. Extensive (shifting) cultivation—work on land for short periods of time then left idle and cleared by slash-and-burn when needed  Requires large amounts of land b. Long-growing tree crops 2. Intensive Agriculture—cultivation of permanent fields generally with use of fertilizers, irrigation systems, mechanical tools Generally have towns and cities, craft specialization, complex political organization, large differences in wealth and power More subject to famines and food shortages-lack of crop diversity, producing for a market, etc Commercialization—trend for intensive agriculturalists to cultivate more and more for a market; CASH CROP  Agribusiness—large corporation owned farms operated by hired hands 3. Pastoralism—food getting based on the maintenance of domesticated animals  Intensive system: animal herd under constant observation with a fenced area all year  Extensive system: allows animals to migrate over a large area Generally practiced in grasslands and semiarid habitats, small, nomadic groups of related families THE ORIGIN, SPREAD, AND INTENSIFICATION OF FOOD PRODUCTION  Shift to food production—Near East in 8000 BC; China, SE Asia, and Africa in 6000 BC; Mexico around 7000 BC; Central Andes around 6000 BC  Theories of development of food production o
More Less

Related notes for ANT 121

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.