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BIO Chp 16.docx

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Syracuse University
BIO 121
Jason Wiles

BIOLOGY CHAPTERS 16 CHAPTER 16 CONCEPT 16.1 • Experiments with bacteria and with phages provided the first strong evidence that the genetic material is DNA. o DNAis used by all living organisms (that carry out the characteristics of life) • Watson and Crick deduced that DNAis a double helix and built a structural model. Two antiparallel sugar-phosphate chains wind around the outside of the molecule; the nitrogenous bases project into the interior, where they hydrogen-bond in specific pairs,Awith T, G with C. • Timeline: o 1866- Gregor Mendel published the results of his investigations of the inheritance of "factors" in pea plants. o 1950's- Wilkins, Franklin, Crick, Watson discover chemical structure of DNA, starting a new branch of science--molecular biology. o Watson and Crick made a model of the DNAmolecule and proved that genes determine heredity. o • DNAmodel o Showed how information is stored in molecule’s structure and how DNAmolecules are templates for their own replication • Nucleotides o DNAis a polymer of nucleotides o Each nucleotide subunit contains a nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate group o The order of the building blocks of DNAstore genetic information o Base pairs  Hydrogen bonding- between specific pairs; binds two chains of helix  Hydrogen bonds are weak, allowing DNAto unzip easily  A& T forms two bonds, G & C forms 3 bonds • Backbone of DNAchain o Alternating sugar and phosphate groups o Joined by covalent bonds • Structure o Double helix, chains run side by side, antiparallel, one is going one way, the other is going the other way o 5’end phosphate attatched o 5’deoxyribose carbon o 3’end hydroxyl attatched to 3’deoxyribose carbon • Semiconservative Replication o Each daughter double helix consists of 1 original strand from parent and 1 new complementary strand CONCEPT 16.2 • The Meselson-Stahl experiment showed that DNAreplication
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