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Chapter 14

COM 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Block Quotation, Word Grammar

Course Code
COM 101

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Liz Staruszkiewicz
COM 101 - Terry
Ch. 14
Question Marks
1. Quotation marks with direct quotations and paraphrase
quotation marks are used to indicate writers are quoting someone word for word (direct
a paraphrase means writers are changing somebody’s words while keeping the original
ideas intact
-a true paraphrase does not utilize quotation marks
2. Quotation marks with other punctuation
common mistake: misplacing periods and commas when they appear with quotation marks
a period or comma should always be placed inside the quotation marks
Quotation Marks with Direct Quotations and Paraphrase
quotation marks have these assorted functions:
A. to quote somebody else, using his or her exact wording
B. to indicate sarcasm, irony, or mockery
C. to indicate titles of short works, such as short stories.
D. to use a word as a word
grammar tip: needless quotation makrs
-for some strange reason, people seem to be increasingly using quotation marks
needlessly. In particular, some people mistakenly use them to emphasize a word or two,
which is not a function of quotation marks. Use boldfacing, underlining, or italics—not
quotation marks—if you want to emphasize certain words
the term direct quotation means only one thing: using somebody else’s language, word for
word. In contrast, paraphrase (indirect quotation) means you are putting somebody else’s
ideas into your own words, keeping the original meaning the same inasmuch as possible
Whats the Problem?
1. People do not always make it clear that they are quoting material directly because of the
way they use the word that to introduce the quote
2. to set off direct quotations you should follow certain conventions: using a comma (or colon)
and capitalizing the first word of the quotation
3. you have the option of something that seems to be both a direct and indirect quotation, but
you must be accurate in what you are claiming to be your own words
Avoiding the problem: use that with indirect quotations
-Avoid using the world that immediately in front of a direct quotation. On the other hand, it is
perfectly normal to begin a praphrase with that, though not a firm requirement
In speech, quotation marks are nonexistent (unless you use your fingers to form imaginary
quotation marks in the air). Thus, people need other cues to know if something is a direct
quotation or paraphrase. The word that is one such cue and indicates you are about to hear
(or read) a paraphrase
It is conceivable that you might use that immediately before a direct quote as well, but such
instances are rare. Even when correct, placing that in front of a direct quote can confuse
people because of the mixed message. Thus, it is suggested that you not use that in front of a
direct quote
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