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United States (205,946)
IST 195 (15)
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Chapter 8

IST Chapter 8

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Information Studies
IST 195

Chapter 8 • Secondary storage: physical material which a computer keeps data, info, programs, applications. • Storage device: hardware that records and/or retrieves items to/from storage media • Writing: Process of transferring data, instructions, and info from memory to a storage medium • Reading: Process of transferring these items from a storage medium into memory • Capacity: number of bytes(characters) a storage medium can hold • Storage term: kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, petabyte, Exabyte, zettabyte, yottabyte • RAM: holds data and instructions temporarily and is volatile • Storage medium: nonvolatile • Access time: measures the amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium or the time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor. • Transfer rate: speed with which data, instructions and information transfer to and from a device • KBps: kilobytes per second • MBps: megabytes per second • GBps: gigabytes per second • Hard disk: storage device that contains one or more inflexible circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information • Fixed disk: not portable • Platter: made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and has a thin coating of alloy material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface • Longitudinal recording: aligns the magnetic particles horizontally around the surface of the disk • Perpendicular recording: hard disks align the magnetic particles vertically, or perpendicular to the disk’s surface, making much greater storage capacities possible • Density: number of bits in an area on a storage medium. • Formatting: process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors so that the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk • Track: narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk • Sectors: disk’s storage locations consist of wedge shaped sections, which break tracks into small arcs • Read/write head: mechanism that reads items and write items in the drive as it barely touches the disk’s recording surface. • Revolutions per minute (rpm): allows nearly instant access to all tracks and sectors on the platters • Head crash: when a read/write head touches the surface of a platter, usually resulting in a loss of data or sometimes loss of the entire disk. • Disk cache: buffer consists of a memory chip on a hard disk that stores frequently accessed data, instructions, and information • RAID: redundant array of independent disks. Ideal storage solution in situations where uninterrupted access to the data is critical. • External hard disk: separate free standing storage device that connects with a cable to a USB port or other port on a computer or mobile device • Solid state media: means they consist entirely of electronic components such as integrated circuits, and contain no moving parts • SSD: solid state drive: flash memory storage device that contains its own processor to manage its storage. • Memory card: removable flash memory storage device, you insert in/remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer • Common types: CF, SDHC, SDXC, miniSD, microSD, microSDHC, microSDXC, xD Picture Card, Memory Stick PRO Duo, M2 • Card reader/writer: device that reads from and writes on memory cards • USB flash drive: flash memory storage device plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile device • Cloud storage: Internet service that provides storage to computer/mobile device users • Optical Disc: type of storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written and read by a lser • Mini disc: work in standard sized optical disc drives • LightScribe Technology: can etch labels directly on the specially coated discs • CD ROM: type of optical disc that users can read
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