• Operating system: set of programs that coordinate all the activities among
computer/mobile device hardware.
• Firmware: consists of ROM chips or flash memory chips that store permanent
• Platform: operating system that a computer uses
• Cross platform application: application that runs the same on multiple operating
• Kernel: core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the
internal clock, runs programs, assigns the resources, such as devices, programs, apps,
data, and information
• Memory resident: it remains in memory while the computer or mobile device is running
• Nonresident: nonresident instructions remain on a storage medium until they’re needed
• Cold boot: process of starting a computer/mobile device from a state when it is powered
• Warm boot: process of restarting a computer/mobile device while it remains powered
• Boot drive: drive from which your personal computer starts, while typically is an internal
hard drive, such as a hard disk or SSD.
• Boot disk: removable media, that contains only the necessary operating system files
required to start the computer
• Live USB/Live CD: means the media can used to start the computer
• Sleep Mode: saves any open documents and running programs or apps to memory,
turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low power states
• Hibernate mode: saves any open documents, running programs or apps to an internal
hard drive before removing power from the computer/device
• User interface: controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is
displayed on the screen.
• Graphical user interface: you interact with menus and visual images by touching,
pointing, tapping, or clicking buttons and other objects to issue commands.
• Touch user interface: graphical user interface designed for touch input. • Natural user interface: users interact with the software through ordinary, intuitive
• Command line interface: user types commands represented by short keywords or
abbreviations or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions.
• Command language: set of commands used to control actions
• Single tasking operating system: allows only one program/app to run at a time
• Multitasking operating system: allows to or more programs or apps to reside in
memory at the same time
• Background: running but not in use
• Multiuser: operating system enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously.
• Virtual machine: enables a computer to run another operating system in addition to the
• Virtual memory: the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium
• Swap file: it swaps data, information, and instructions between memory and storage.
• Paging: swapping items between memory and storage
• Page: amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time
• Thrashing: spend much of its time paging instead of executing application software
• Buffer: segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be
transferred from an input device or to an output device
• Spooling: sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them
immediately to the printer
• Queue: documents lined up in the buffer
• Print spooler: intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places
them in the queue
• Driver: small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a
• Plug and play: operating system automatically configures new devices as you install
them. • Performance monitor: program that assesses and reports information about various
computer resources and devices
• File manager: performs functions related to displaying files; organizing files in folders;
and copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files
• Search: attempts to locate a file on