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Chapter 9

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Information Studies
IST 195

Chapter 9 • Operating system: set of programs that coordinate all the activities among computer/mobile device hardware. • Firmware: consists of ROM chips or flash memory chips that store permanent instructions • Platform: operating system that a computer uses • Cross platform application: application that runs the same on multiple operating systems • Kernel: core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the internal clock, runs programs, assigns the resources, such as devices, programs, apps, data, and information • Memory resident: it remains in memory while the computer or mobile device is running • Nonresident: nonresident instructions remain on a storage medium until they’re needed • Cold boot: process of starting a computer/mobile device from a state when it is powered off completely. • Warm boot: process of restarting a computer/mobile device while it remains powered on. • Boot drive: drive from which your personal computer starts, while typically is an internal hard drive, such as a hard disk or SSD. • Boot disk: removable media, that contains only the necessary operating system files required to start the computer • Live USB/Live CD: means the media can used to start the computer • Sleep Mode: saves any open documents and running programs or apps to memory, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low power states • Hibernate mode: saves any open documents, running programs or apps to an internal hard drive before removing power from the computer/device • User interface: controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. • Graphical user interface: you interact with menus and visual images by touching, pointing, tapping, or clicking buttons and other objects to issue commands. • Touch user interface: graphical user interface designed for touch input. • Natural user interface: users interact with the software through ordinary, intuitive behavior. • Command line interface: user types commands represented by short keywords or abbreviations or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions. • Command language: set of commands used to control actions • Single tasking operating system: allows only one program/app to run at a time • Multitasking operating system: allows to or more programs or apps to reside in memory at the same time • Background: running but not in use • Multiuser: operating system enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously. • Virtual machine: enables a computer to run another operating system in addition to the one installed. • Virtual memory: the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium • Swap file: it swaps data, information, and instructions between memory and storage. • Paging: swapping items between memory and storage • Page: amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time • Thrashing: spend much of its time paging instead of executing application software • Buffer: segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device • Spooling: sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer • Queue: documents lined up in the buffer • Print spooler: intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue • Driver: small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device • Plug and play: operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them. • Performance monitor: program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices • File manager: performs functions related to displaying files; organizing files in folders; and copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files • Search: attempts to locate a file on
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