• Database: collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and
use of that data
• Database management system: users create a computerized database; sort and
retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the data in the database.
• Data integrity: quality of the data
• Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO): points out the accuracy of output depends on the
accuracy of input
• Accurate information: error free
• Verifiable information: proven as correct/incorrect
• Timely information: age suited to its use
• Organized information: arranged to suit the needs +requirements of the decision
• Accessible information: available when the decision maker needs it
• Useful information: has meaning to the person who receives it
• Cost effective information: should provide more value than its costs to produce
• Character: number, letter, space, punctuation mark, or other symbol
• Field: combination of 1+ related characters or bytes and is the smallest unit of data a
• Field name: uniquely identifies each field.
• Data type: specifies the kind of data a field can contain and how the field is used.
• Record: group of related fields
• Primary key: field that uniquely identifies each record in a file.
• Composite key: primary key consists of multiple fields
• Data file: file, collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard
drive or optical disc.
• File maintenance: refers to the procedure that keep data current. • Validation: process of comparing data with a set of rules/values to determine if the data
• Alphabetic check: ensures that users enter only alphabetic data into a field
• Numeric check: ensures that users enter only numeric data into a field
• Range check: determines whether a number is within a specified range
• Consistency check: tests the data in 2+ associated fields to ensure that the relationship
is logical +their data is in the correct format
• Completeness check: verifies that a required field contains data
• Check digit: number or character that is appended to or inserted in a primary key value
• File processing system: each department or area within an organization has its own
set of files.
• Data dictionary: repository, contains data about each file in database and each field in
• Default value: value that the DBMS initially displays in a field.
• Query: request for specific data from the database
• Query language: consists of simple, English like statements that allow users to specify
the data they want to display, print, store, update, or delete
• Query by example: feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with
• Form: data entry form, window on the screen that provides areas for entering or
modifying data in a database
• Report writer: report generator, allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve
data into the report design, and then display or print the report
• Principle of least privilege policy: users’ access privileges are limited to the lowest
level necessary to perform required tasks
• Backup: copy of the entire database should be made on a regular basis
• Log: listing of activities that modify the contents of the database
• Recovery utility: uses logs/backups and either a roll-forward or rollback technique to
restore a database when it becomes damage/destroyed. • Rollforward: forward recovery, the DBMS uses the log to reenter changes made to the
database since the last save or backup.
• Rollback: backward recovery, DBMS uses the log to undo any changes made to the
database during a certain period
• Continuous backup: backup plan in which changes are backed up as they’re made
• Data model: defines how users view the organization of the data
• Relational database: database that stores data in tables that consist of rows +columns.
• Table: file
• Row: record
• Column: field
• Relationship: link within the data
• Object oriented database: stores data in objects
• Object: item that c