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Chapter 12

IST Chapter 12.docx

8 Pages

Information Studies
Course Code
IST 195

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Chapter 12 • System development: set of activities used to build an information system • Phases: system development activities grouped into larger categories • System development life cycle: collection of phases- planning, analysis, design, implementation, support and security • System Development Guidelines: group activities into phases, involve users, define standards • System development: • Planning: review project requests, prioritize project requests, allocate resources, form project development team • Analysis: conduct preliminary investigation, perform detailed analysis activities, study current system, determine user requirements, recommend solution • Design: acquire hardware and software, if necessary, develop details of system • Implementation: develop programs and apps, if necessary, install and test new system, train users, convert to new system • Support and Security: perform maintenance activities, monitor system performance, assess system security • Standards: set of rules and procedures an organization expects employees to accept and follow. • Systems analyst: responsible for designing and developing an information system • Project management: process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during system development. • Project leader: manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project • Project manager: controls the activities during system development • Scope: Goals, objectives, expectations of the project • Project management software: assist them in planning, scheduling, controlling development projects • Deliverable: any tangible item such as a chart, diagram, report, program file • Gantt chart: Henry Gantt, bar chart that uses horizontal bars to show project phases/activities. Left side, vertical axis displays the list of required activities. Horizontal axis across the top/bottom of the chart represents time • PERT chart: program evaluation and review technique chart, analyzes the time required to complete a task +identifies the minimum time required for an entire project, called network diagrams, planning +scheduling large, complex projects • Scope creep/feature creep: occurs when one activity has led to another that was not planned originally; thus the scope of the project now has grown • Change management: process of recognizing when a change in the project has occurred, taking actions to react to the change, and planning for opportunities because of the change. • Feasibility: measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the organization. • Operational feasibility: measures how well the proposed information system will work. • Schedule feasibility: measures whether the establish deadlines for the project are reasonable. • Technical feasibility: measures whether the organization has or can obtain the computing resources, software services, and qualified people needed to develop, deliver and then support the proposed information system. • Economic feasibility: cost/benefit feasibility: measures whether the lifetime benefits of the proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs • Documentation: collection +summarization of data, information, deliverables. • Conferencing software: includes tools that enable users to share documents via online meetings +communicate with other connected users. • Web conference: meeting takes place on the web. • Joint application design session: focus group, consists of a series of lengthy, structured group meetings in which users +IT professionals work together to design/develop an application • Information literacy: prepares students, employees, citizens to manage information so that they can be knowledgeable decision makers • Planning phase: 4 major activities performed: review +approve the project requests, prioritize the project requests, allocate resources such as money, people, and equipment to approved projects, form a project development team for each approved project • Preliminary investigation: feasibility study: to determine the exact nature of the problem or improvement and decide whether it is worth pursuing. • Detailed analysis: 3 major activities, study how the current system works, determine the users’ wants, needs, and requirements, recommend a solution. • Logical design: detailed analysis, system analysts develop the proposed solution without regard to any specific hardware/software • Design phase: consists of two major activities: if necessary, acquire hardware and software and develop all of the details of the new/modified information system. • Request for quotation: identifies the required product. • Request for proposal: vendor selects the product that meets specified requirements and then quotes the price • Request for information: less formal method that uses a standard form to request information about a product/service • Value added reseller: organization that purchases products from manufacturers and then resells these products to the public, offering additional services with the product. • IT consultant: professional who is hired based on technical expertise, including service +advice • Benchmark test: measures the performance of hardware/software. • Mock up: sample of the input/output that contains actual data • Program specification package: identifies required programs and the relationship among each program, as well as the input, output, and database specifications. • Prototype: proof of concept, working model of the proposed system’s essential functionality. • Computer aided software engineering software tools: designed to support 1+ activities of system development. • Implementation phase: construct, build, new/modified system and then deliver it to the users. • Program development life cycle: program development activities • Sandbox: environment that allows software developers to test their programs with fictitious data w/o adversely affecting other programs, information systems, data • Unit test: verifies that each individual program/object works by itself • Systems test: verifies that all programs in an application work together properly • Integration test: verifies that an application works with other applications • Acceptance test: performed by end users and checks the new system to ensure that it works with actual data • Training: involves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and software in the system. • Direct conversion: user stops using the old system and begins using the new system on a certain date • Parallel conversion: consists of running the old system alongside the new system for a specified time. • Phased conversion: each location converts at a separate time • P
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