• System development: set of activities used to build an information system
• Phases: system development activities grouped into larger categories
• System development life cycle: collection of phases- planning, analysis, design,
implementation, support and security
• System Development Guidelines: group activities into phases, involve users, define
• System development:
• Planning: review project requests, prioritize project requests, allocate resources, form
project development team
• Analysis: conduct preliminary investigation, perform detailed analysis activities, study
current system, determine user requirements, recommend solution
• Design: acquire hardware and software, if necessary, develop details of system
• Implementation: develop programs and apps, if necessary, install and test new system,
train users, convert to new system
• Support and Security: perform maintenance activities, monitor system performance,
assess system security
• Standards: set of rules and procedures an organization expects employees to accept
• Systems analyst: responsible for designing and developing an information system
• Project management: process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the
activities during system development.
• Project leader: manages and controls the budget and schedule of the project
• Project manager: controls the activities during system development
• Scope: Goals, objectives, expectations of the project
• Project management software: assist them in planning, scheduling, controlling
• Deliverable: any tangible item such as a chart, diagram, report, program file • Gantt chart: Henry Gantt, bar chart that uses horizontal bars to show project
phases/activities. Left side, vertical axis displays the list of required activities. Horizontal axis
across the top/bottom of the chart represents time
• PERT chart: program evaluation and review technique chart, analyzes the time required
to complete a task +identifies the minimum time required for an entire project, called network
diagrams, planning +scheduling large, complex projects
• Scope creep/feature creep: occurs when one activity has led to another that was not
planned originally; thus the scope of the project now has grown
• Change management: process of recognizing when a change in the project has
occurred, taking actions to react to the change, and planning for opportunities because of
• Feasibility: measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the
• Operational feasibility: measures how well the proposed information system will work.
• Schedule feasibility: measures whether the establish deadlines for the project are
• Technical feasibility: measures whether the organization has or can obtain the
computing resources, software services, and qualified people needed to develop, deliver
and then support the proposed information system.
• Economic feasibility: cost/benefit feasibility: measures whether the lifetime benefits of
the proposed information system will be greater than its lifetime costs
• Documentation: collection +summarization of data, information, deliverables.
• Conferencing software: includes tools that enable users to share documents via online
meetings +communicate with other connected users.
• Web conference: meeting takes place on the web.
• Joint application design session: focus group, consists of a series of lengthy,
structured group meetings in which users +IT professionals work together to design/develop
• Information literacy: prepares students, employees, citizens to manage information so
that they can be knowledgeable decision makers
• Planning phase: 4 major activities performed: review +approve the project requests,
prioritize the project requests, allocate resources such as money, people, and equipment to
approved projects, form a project development team for each approved project • Preliminary investigation: feasibility study: to determine the exact nature of the
problem or improvement and decide whether it is worth pursuing.
• Detailed analysis: 3 major activities, study how the current system works, determine
the users’ wants, needs, and requirements, recommend a solution.
• Logical design: detailed analysis, system analysts develop the proposed solution
without regard to any specific hardware/software
• Design phase: consists of two major activities: if necessary, acquire hardware and
software and develop all of the details of the new/modified information system.
• Request for quotation: identifies the required product.
• Request for proposal: vendor selects the product that meets specified requirements
and then quotes the price
• Request for information: less formal method that uses a standard form to request
information about a product/service
• Value added reseller: organization that purchases products from manufacturers and
then resells these products to the public, offering additional services with the product.
• IT consultant: professional who is hired based on technical expertise, including service
• Benchmark test: measures the performance of hardware/software.
• Mock up: sample of the input/output that contains actual data
• Program specification package: identifies required programs and the relationship
among each program, as well as the input, output, and database specifications.
• Prototype: proof of concept, working model of the proposed system’s essential
• Computer aided software engineering software tools: designed to support 1+
activities of system development.
• Implementation phase: construct, build, new/modified system and then deliver it to the
• Program development life cycle: program development activities
• Sandbox: environment that allows software developers to test their programs with
fictitious data w/o adversely affecting other programs, information systems, data • Unit test: verifies that each individual program/object works by itself
• Systems test: verifies that all programs in an application work together properly
• Integration test: verifies that an application works with other applications
• Acceptance test: performed by end users and checks the new system to ensure that it
works with actual data
• Training: involves showing users exactly how they will use the new hardware and
software in the system.
• Direct conversion: user stops using the old system and begins using the new system
on a certain date
• Parallel conversion: consists of running the old system alongside the new system for a
• Phased conversion: each location converts at a separate time