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Chapter 6

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Information Studies
IST 195

Chapter 6 • System unit/chassis: case on a desktop that contains and protects the motherboard, hard disk drive, memory, and other electronic components • Motherboard: system board, main circuit board of the computer • Computer chip: small piece of semiconducting material, silicon, which integrated circuits are etched • Integrated circuit: contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current • Transistor: act as an electronic switch that opens/closes the circuit for electrical charges • Processor (central processing unit): interprets and carries out basic instructions operate a computer • Multi core professor: single chip with two or more separate processor cores • Processors: contain control unit and arithmetic logic unit, work together perform process operations • Control unit: component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer • Arithmetic logic unit: another component of the processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations; basic calculations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division • Comparison operations: comparing one data item with another to determine whether the first item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other item • Machine cycle: processor repeats set of four basic operations • Fetching: obtaining a program or application instruction or data item from memory • Decoding: process of translating the instruction into signals the computer can execute • Executing: process of carrying out the commands • Storing: writing the result to memory • Registers: high speed storage locations that temporarily hold data and instructions, part of the processor, not part of memory or permanent storage device • System clock: small quartz crystal circuit, control the timing of all computer operations • Clock cycle: each tick equates to a clock cycle • Superscalar: processors that can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle • Clock speed: pace of the system clock, measured by the number of ticks per second • Giga: billion • Hertz: one cycle per second • Gigahertz: one billion ticks of the system clock per second • AMD: manufactures Intel-compatible processors, which have an internal design similar to Intel processors, perform the same functions, and can be as powerful, but often are less expensive • Heat sink: small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components, processor • Liquid cooling technology: continuous flow of fluids that transfers heated fluid away from the processor to a radiator type grill, which cools the liquid and returns the cooled fluid to processor • Cooling pad: rests below a laptop and protects the computer from overheating and also the user’s lap from excessive heat • Accessibility: data and/or applications are available worldwide from any computer/device with an Internet connection • Cost savings: expense of software and high end hardware, such as fast processors and high capacity memory and storage devices, shifts away from the user • Space savings: floor space required for servers, storage devices, and other hardware shifts away from the user • Scalability: Provides the flexibility to increase or decrease computing requirements as needed • Front end: hardware +software which user interacts to access the cloud • Back end: consists of the servers and storage devices that manage and store the resources accessed by users • Infrastructure as a Service: uses software to emulate hardware capabilities. (storage, desktop) • Storage as a service: cloud storage file management services online • Desktop as a service: specify the applications, security settings, and computing resources available to employees on their desktop computers (virtual desktop) • Software as Service: computing environment where an Internet server hosts/deploys application • Data as a service: allows users and applications to access a company’s data • Mashups: applications that incorporate data from multiple providers into a new application • Platform as a service: allows developers to create, test, and run their solutions on a cloud platform without having to purchase or configure the underlying hardware +software • Analog: continuous wave signals that vary in strength and quality • Digital: recognize only two discrete states: on/off • Digit 0: electronic state off • Digit 1: electronic state on • Binary system: number system that has just two unique digits: 0 and 1 • Bit: smallest unit of data computer can process • Byte: when 8 bits grouped together, provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 different characters • Alphanumeric: letters and numbers • ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange, most widely used coding scheme to represent a set of characters • Memory: electronic components that store in
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