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Chapter 3

IST Chapter 3

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Syracuse University
Information Studies
IST 195

Chapter 3 • Computer: electronic device, operating under control instructions stored own memory, can accept data (input), process data according specified rules, produce info (output), and store info future use. • Mobile device: Computing device small enough to hold in your hand • Personal computer: Computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, storage activities by itself and is intended to be used by one person at a time. • Motherboard: system board, main circuit board of the personal computer. (processor +memory) o Processor: CPU, electronic component that interprets • Desktop: Personal computer designed be in stationary location, where all of components fit on/under a desk/table • System unit: Case that contains +protects the motherboard, hard disk drive, memory, and other electronic components of the computer from damage. • Tower: Made of metal/plastic, frame that houses the system unit on a desktop • All in one desktop: Do not have a tower and instead house the screen and system in the same case. • Gaming desktop: Offer high quality audio/video, graphics with optimal performance • Workstation: Designed to handle intense calculations and sophisticated graphics • Laptop: notebook computer, thin, lightweight mobile computer with screen in lid+ keyboard in base. • Tablet: thin, lightweight mobile computer that has a touch screen o Slate tablet: type of tablet that does not contain a physical keyboard o Convertible tablet: tablet that has a screen in its lid and keyboard in its base o Stylus: small ink pen, use instead fingertip enter data, make selections, draw on a touch screen o Phablet: device that combines features of a smartphone with a tablet • Handheld computer: Computer small enough to fit in one hand. • Server: Computer dedicated provide 1+ services to other computers/devices on a network • Dedicated server: Perform specific service +can be placed with other dedicated servers perform multiple services • Application server: stores and runs apps • Backup server: Backs up and restores files, folders and media • Database server: stores and provides access to a database • Domain name server: stores domain names and their corresponding IP addresses • Filer server: stores and manages files • FTP server: stores files for user upload or download via FTP • Game server: provides a central location for online game play • Home server: provides storage, Internet connections, or other services to computers and devices in a household • List server: stores and manages email lists • Mail server: stores and delivers email messages • Network server: manages network traffic • Print server: manages printers and documents being printed • Web server: stores and delivers requested webpages to a computer via a browser • Rack server: rack-mounted server, housed in a slot on a metal frame. • Blade server: server in the form of a single circuit board/blade. Blades insert in a blade server chassis that can hold many blades. • Tower server: Built into a upright cabinet that stands alone. • Virtualization: Practice of sharing/pooling computing resources, servers +storage devices • Server virtualization: uses software to divide a physical server logically into many virtual servers • Server farms: network of several servers together in a single location • Mainframe: Large, expensive, powerful server that can handle hundreds/thousands of connected users simultaneously • Supercomputer: fastest, most powerful computer and most expensive. Capable of processing many trillions of instructions in a single second • Terminal: Computer limited processing power, enables users send data/receive info from a server/host computer • Thin client: Terminal that looks like a desktop but has limited capabilities and components. Run programs and access data on a network or the Internet • Special purpose terminals perform specific task +contain features uniquely designed for use in a particular industry. • POS terminal (point of sale): record purchases, process credit/debit cards, update inventory • Bar code reader: input device that uses laser beams to read bar codes on products • ATM (automated teller machine): self-service banking terminal connects to host computer through a network • PIN( personal identification number): verifies you are the holder of the bank card • Self-service kiosk: freestanding terminal usually has a touch screen for user interaction. • Financial kiosk: pay bills, add minutes to phone plans, add money to prepaid cards • Photo kiosk: print photos from digital images. • Ticket kiosk: print tickets • Vending kiosk: dispense item after payment is received. • Visitor kiosk: manage +track visitors upon check in. • Cloud computing: environment of servers that house and provide access to resource users access through the Internet (email, schedules, music, photos, games, websites, programs, web apps, servers, storage) • Business use cloud computing: more efficiently use resources by shifting usage +consumption of these resources from a local environment to the Internet • Smartphone: Internet capable phone: calendar, appointment book, address book, calculator, notepad, games, browser, numerous apps: send/receive email messages, communicate wirelessly, media player, digital camera, microphone/Bluetooth headset, live video calls, gps signals, sync data+ information, voice control, wireless access point • On-screen keyboard: Press keys on the screen using your fingertip/stylus • Predictive text input: press one key and saves users time when entering text on the phone • Portable keyboard: full-sized keyboard that communicates with a smartphone via dock/cables/wirelessly • Virtual keyboard: projects image of a keyboard on a flat surface • SMS: Short message service, users send/receive short text messages less than 300 characters • Mobile to mobile: send message from mobile device to another mobile device • Mobile to email: send message from mobile device to email address • Web to mobile: send message from text messaging website to mobile device • Mobile to provider: send message common short code (CSC): 4-5 digit number assigned to specific content or mobile service provider • MMS: Multimedia message service • Mobile to mobile: send photo/video from mobile device to another mobile device • Mobile to email: send picture/video from mobile device to any email address • Voice mail: Functions like answering machine, allows someone leave voice
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