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Chapter 5

IST Chapter 5

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Information Studies
IST 195

Chapter 5 • Digital security risk: any event or action that could cause a loss/damage to computer/mobile device hardware, software, data, information or processing capability • Common digital security risks: Internet +network attacks, unauthorized access and use, hardware theft, software theft, information theft, system failure • Computer crime: illegal act involving the use of a computer or related devices • Cybercrime: online/Internet-based illegal acts; distributing malicious software/ identity theft • Crimeware: Software used by cybercriminals • Hacker: computer enthusiast, someone who accesses a computer/network illegally • Cracker: Someone who accesses a computer/network illegally but has the intent of destroying data, stealing information or other malicious action • Script kiddie: has same intent as cracker but does not have technically skills and knowledge • Cyberextortionist: someone demand payment stop attack on organization technology infrastructure • Cyberterrorist: someone who uses Internet/network destroy/damage computers political reasons • Cyberwarfare: Describes attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government’s computer network to crippling a country • Malware: malicious software, consists of programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter the operations of computers/mobile devices • Virus: damaging program affects, infects computer/mobile device negatively by altering the way the computer/device works without the user’s knowledge or permission • Worm: Program that copies itself repeatedly in memory/network, using up resources, possibly shutting down the computer, device, network • Trojan horse: program that hides within/looks like a legitimate program. Does not replicate itself to other computers/devices • Rootkit: program that hides in a computer/mobile device and allows someone from remote location to take full control of the computer/device • Spyware: program placed on a computer/mobile device without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user and then communicates the information it collects to some outside source while the user is online • Adware: program that displays an online advertisement in a banner/pop up window on webpages, email messages, other Internet services • Payload: destructive event/prank, when user opens an infected file, runs an infected program, connects an unprotected computer to a network, • Botnet: zombie army, group of compromised computers/mobile devices connected to a network used to attack other networks • Zombie: compromised computer/device, one whose owner is unaware the computer/device is being controlled remotely by an outsider • Bot: Program that performs a repetitive task on a network • Denial of service attack: assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet service such as the web/email • Distributed DoS attack: zombie army used to attack computers/computer networks • Back door: program/set of instructions in a program that allows users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, network • Spoofing: technique intruders use to make their network/Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer/network • Email spoofing: sender’s address or other components of an email header are altered so that it appears that the email message originated from a different sender • IP spoofing: Occurs when intruder computer fools a network into believing its IP address is associated with a trusted source • Safeguards against Internet +network attacks: • Use antivirus • Suspicious email attachments • Scan removable media for malware • Implement firewall solutions • Back up regularly • Online security service: web app that evaluates your computer/mobile device to check for Internet and email vulnerabilities • Macros: useful to record, save, and then execute set of keystrokes +instructions, destructive when hidden in a file +run without permission • Firewall: hardware/software that protects a network’s resources from intrusions by users on another network • Proxy server: server outside the organization’s network that controls which communications pass in/out of the organization’s network • Personal firewall: software firewall that detects +protects a personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions • Unauthorized access: use of a computer/network without permission • Unauthorized use: use of a computer/data for unapproved or possibly illegal activity • Acceptable use policy: outlines activities for which the computer/network may +may not be used • Access control: security measure that defines who can access a computer, device or network; when they access it; and what actions they can take while accessing it • Audit trail; records in a file bot successful +unsuccessful access attempts • Username: User ID, identification, unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers that identify one specific user • Password: private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources • Passphrase: private combination of words, often containing mixed capitalization and punctuation associated with a user name that allows access to certain resources • CAPTCHA: completely automated public turing test, tell computers and humans apart • PIN: personal identification number is a number password assigned by a company or selected by a user • Biometric device: Authenticates a person’s identity by translating a personal characteristic such as a fingerprint, into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in a computer verifying a physical/behavioral characteristic • Fingerprint reader: scanner captures curves +indentations of a fingerprint • Face recognition system: captures a live face image and compares it with a stored image to determine if the person is a legitimate user • Hand geometry system: measures the shape +size of a person’s hand • Voice verification system: compares a person’s live speech with their stored voice pattern • Signature verification system: recognizes the shape of your handwritten signature as well as measures the pressure exerted and the motion used to write the signature • Iris recognition system: uses iris recognition technology to read patterns in the iris of the eye • Biometric payment: where the customer’s fingerprint is read by a finger print reader that is linked to a payment method • Cyberforensics: discovery, collection, analysis of evidence found on computers/networks • Software theft: when someone steals software media, intentionally erases programs, illegally registers and/or activates a program, or illegally copies a program • Physically stealing: a perpetrator physically steals the media that contains the software, steals the hardware that contains the media that contains the software • Intentionally erasing software: A perpetrator erases the media that contains the software. • Illegal registration/activation: Perpetrator illegally obtains registration numbers /activation codes • Keygen: key generator creates software registration numbers and activation codes • Illegal copying: Perpetrator copies software from manufacturers • Software piracy: unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software • Product activation: conducted online or by phone, users provide the software product’s identification number to associate the software with the computer or mobile device on which the software is installed • License agreement: Right to use software • Single user license agreement/end user license agreement: provides specific conditions for use of the software • Network license: legal agreement that allows multiple users to access the software on the server simultaneously • Site license: legal agreement permits users to install the software on multiple computers(discount) • Information theft: occurs when someone steals personal/confidential inf
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