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Chapter 8&9

nutrition chapter 8 & 9 notes.docx

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Syracuse University
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Adipocyte: cell that stores fat Adjustable Gastric Banding: limits amount of food that can be consumed Age-Related Bone Loss: bone loss that occurs in both men and women as they advance in age (279) Amenorrhea: delayed onset of menstruation or the absence of three or more consecutive menstrual cycles Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder characterized by self-starvation, a distorted body image, and abnormally low body weight Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): signals the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing amount lost in urine Appetite: desire to consume specific foods that is independent of hunger Basal Metabolism: energy expended to maintain an awake, resting body that is not digesting food Basal Metabolic Rate: rate of energy expenditure under resting conditions. Measured after 12 hours without food or exercise Behavior Modification: process that is used to gradually and permanently change habitual behaviors Binge-Eating Disorder: eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating in the absence of purging behavior Blood Pressure: amount of force exerted by the blood against the walls of arteries (259) Body Image: the way a person perceives and imagines his or her body Body Mass Index: measure of body weight relative to height that is used to compare body size with a standard. Healthy BMI for adults: 18.5-24.9 kg/m. Weight in kg/height in meters or lb./in Body Composition: relative proportions of fat and lean tissue that make up the body, affects the risks associated with excess body weight Bone Remodeling: continuous process in which small amounts of bone are removed and replaced by new bone (279) Bone Resorption: when too little calcium is consumed, the body maintains normal blood levels by breaking down bone to release calcium (282) Bulimia Nervosa: eating disorder characterized by the consumption of a large amount of food at one time followed by purging behaviors such as self-induced vomiting to prevent weight gain Calcium: adults 19-50: 1000mg/day. Good sources: yogurt, 1% milk, cheese (cheddar), sardines, tofu, kale, broccoli (283) Calcitonin: hormone that acts primarily on bone to inhibit release of calcium into blood (282) Chromium: required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Liver, brewer’s yeast, nuts, and whole grains (298) Cretinism: condition resulting from poor maternal iodine intake during pregnancy that impairs mental development and growth in offspring (297) Cofactor: inorganic ion or coenzyme required for enzyme activity Dairy: calcium, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, iodine, molybdenum DASH Eating Plan: dietary approaches to stop hypertension. Incorporates recommended amounts of each of these can cause significant reduction in blood pressure and is a dietary pattern recommended by 2010 dietary guidelines. Provides fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Lower in sodium. (275) Dehydration: state that occurs when not enough water is present to meet the body’s needs Diet-Induced Thermogenesis: energy required for the digestion of food and absorption, metabolism, and storage of nutrients Diuretic: substance that increases the amount of urine passed from the body Eating Disorder: psychological illness characterized by specific abnormal eating behaviors, often intended to control weight Electrolyte: positively or negatively charged ion that conducts an electrical current in solution. Commonly refers to sodium, potassium, and chloride. Help regulate fluid balance, distribution of water throughout body depends on concentration of electrolytes and other solutes (270) Energy Balance: amount of energy consumed in the diet compared with the amount expended by the body over a given period FemaleAthlete Triad: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Energy restriction, high levels of exercise, causes amenorrhea. Low estrogen levels interfere with calcium balance. Fluorosis: condition caused by chronic overconsumption of fluoride, characterized by black and brown stains and cracking and pitting of teeth (299) Fruits: iron, potassium Gastric Bypass: reduces the amount of food that can be consumed and the amount that can be absorbed Ghrelin: hormone. May cause you to feel hungry around lunchtime, regardless of when and how much you ate for breakfast Glutathione Peroxidase: antioxidant enzyme. Neutralizes peroxides before they can form free radicals Goiter: enlargement of thyroid gland caused by deficiency of iodine (297) Grains: iron, zinc, selenium, copper, magnesium, chromium, sulfur, manganese, sodium, potassium, phosphorus Heme Iron: readily absorbable form of iron found in meat, organ meat, fish, and poultry that is chemically associated with certain proteins (287) Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein. Transports oxygen to body cells and carries carbon dioxide aware from them for elimination by lungs Hemochromatosis: inherited disorder that results in increased iron absorption. Can cause iron overload Hunger: desire to consume food that is triggered by internal physiological signs Hyponatremia: condition when concentration of sodium in blood drops Hypertension: blood pressure that is consistently elevated to 140/90mm mercury or greater (271) Ion: atom or group of atoms that carries an electrical charge (267) Iodine: found in thyroid gland. Iodized Salt: table salt to which a small amount of sodium iodide or potassium iodide has been added in order to supplement the iodine content of the diet Iron: needed for production of iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. Essential for ATP production in aerobic metabolism. Involved in drug metabolism and immune function. Lentils, spinach, sunflower seeds, beef, whole-wheat bread, spaghetti. RDAwomen >50 and men: 8mg/day. Women 19-50: 18mg/day Iron DeficiencyAnemia: iron deficiency disease that occurs when the oxyge
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