nutrition chapter 3 notes.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Syracuse University
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Absorption: the process of taking substances from the gastrointestinal tract into the interior of the body Active Transport: transport of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy Adenosine Triphosphate: high-energy molecule that the body uses to power activities that require energy Allergen: substance that causes an allergic reaction Antigen: foreign substance that, when introduced into the body, stimulates an immune response Antibody: protein, released by a type of lymphocyte that interacts with and deactivates specific antigens Atom: the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of the element Arteries: transport blood and dissolved substances away from heart Arterioles: smallest arteries Bile: digestive fluid made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that is released into the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion and absorption Bicarbonate: base. Neutralizes the acid in the chyme, making the environment in the small intestine neutral or slightly basic rather than acidic, as in the stomach. Neutrality allows enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine to function Cardiovascular System: handles delivery of nutrients to cells. Consists of heart and blood vessels Capillary: small, thin-walled blood vessel through which blood and the body’s cells exchange gases and nutrients Cell: the basic structural and functional unit of living things Cellular Respiration: like cell breathing. in mitochondria. sugar glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids derived from carbs, fats, and proteins, are broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water and release energy Celiac Disease: condition in which the protein gluten, found in wheat, barley, and rye, triggers an immune system response that damages or destroys the villi of the small intestine Chyme: semiliquid food mass. Combination of bolus mashed and mixed with highly acidic stomach secretions Diffusion: net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Digestion: the process by which food is broken down into components small enough to be absorbed into the body Enzyme: a protein molecule that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed Epiglottis: piece of elastic connective tissue that covers the opening to the lungs during swallowing Facilitated Diffusion: assisted (by carrier molecule) diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane Feces: body waste, including unabsorbed food residue, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells, which is eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract by way of the anus Food Allergies: occur when the body sees proteins present in a food as foreign substances and initiates an immune response Gallstones: clumps of solid material that accumulate in either the gallbladder or the bile duct Gastric Juice: causes chemical digestion in the stomach. Produced by gastric glands in pits that dot the stomach lining. Mixture of water, mucus, hydrochloric acid, and an inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): chronic condition in which acidic stomach contents leak into the esophagus, causing pain and damaging the esophagus Heartburn: burning sensa
More Less

Related notes for NSD 225

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.