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Chapter 6&7

nutrition chapt 6 & 7 terms.docx

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Syracuse University
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

AminoAcids: building blocks of proteins. Each amino acid contains an amino group, an acidic group, and a unique side chain. C bound to H, amino group (N), acidic group, and side chain Animal Protein: provide most concentrated sources of protein. Provide vitamin B, readily absorbable sources of minerals, iron, zinc, calcium. Low in fiber. High in saturated fat and cholesterol AminoAcid Pool: all the amino acids in body tissues and fluids that are available for use by the body Alpha-Carotene: Provitamin a carotenoid, not converted into retinoids as efficiently as beta- carotene. Function as antioxidant and protect against cancer and heart disease Alpha-Tocoperol: only form of vitamin E the body can use to meet requirements Atrophic Gastritis: inflammation of stomach lining that results in reduced secretion of stomach acid, microbial overgrowth, and, in severe cases, a reduction in the production of intrinsic factor Antioxidant: substance that decreases the adverse effects of reactive molecules on normal physiological function ATP: form of energy used to run the body Beriberi: thiamin deficiency disease that causes weakness, nerve degeneration, and in some cases, heart changes Beta-Carotene: carrots are a good source. Provitamin that can be converted into vitaminAin the body. Most potent vitaminAprecursor Beta-Cryptoxanthin: Provitamin a carotenoid, not converted into retinoids as efficiently as beta- carotene. Function as antioxidant and protect against cancer and heart disease Bioavailability: extent to which the body can absorb and use a nutrient Biotin: B vitamin, coenzyme that functions energy metabolism and glucose synthesis. Sources: eggs, liver, yogurt, nuts.AI of 30ug/day Calcium: bone health, needed for proper functioning of nerves, muscles, glands, and other tissues Cell Differentiation: process whereby immature cells change in structure and function to become specialized Coenzyme: organic nonprotein substance that binds to an enzyme to promote its activity Collagen: most abundant protein in the body. Forms the base of all connective tissue Celiac Disease: disorder that causes damage to the intestines when the protein gluten is eaten Conditionally EssentialAmino Acid: cannot be synthesized in sufficient amounts to meet the body’s needs Choline: water-soluble substance that is needed for synthesis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, structure and function of cell membranes, lipid transport, and homocysteine metabolism. Can be synthesized to a limited extent by humans.An essential nutrient (226) Carotenoids: yellow, orange, and red pigments synthesized by plants and many microorganisms. Some can be converted to vitamin A Denaturation: alteration of a protein’s 3-D structure Dietary Folate Equivalents (DFE): RDAfor folate. 1 DFE is equal to 1 microgram of food folate, 0.6ug of synthetic folic acid from fortified food or supplements consumed with food, or 0.5ug of synthetic folic acid consumed on an empty stomach Enzymes: speed up biochemical reactions and transport proteins that travel in the blood or help materials cross membranes, regulate processes throughout the body EssentialAmino Acid or IndispensableAminoAcid: cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts to meet its needs and therefore must be included in the diet FoodAllergy: adverse immune response to a specific food protein Food Intolerance or Food Sensitivity: adverse reaction to a food that does not involve the production of antibodies by the immune system Fat-soluble Vitamins:A, D, E, and K. Stored in the cells associated with fat. Less readily excreted; tend to remain in fat-storage sites. Likely to reach toxic levels when consumed from supplements and/or fortified foods. Needed in periodic doses (perhaps week or months) Free Radical: type of highly reactive atom or molecule that causes oxidative damage Functions of Vitamins: p206 Folate: B vitamin important during pregnancy for development of embryo FolicAcid: easily absorbed form of vitamin folate that is used in dietary supplements and fortified foods Gene: length of DNAthat contains the information needed to synthesize a polypeptide chain Gene Expression: protein code being made. Events of protein synthesis in which the information coded in a gene is used to synthesize a protein HemolyticAnemia: caused by vitamin E deficiency causing red blood cell membranes to rupture (238) Hypercarotenemia: condition caused by the accumulation of carotenoids in the adipose tissue, causing the skin to appear yellow-orange Hormones: regulate biological processes Intrinsic Factor: protein produced in stomach that is needed for absorption of adequate amounts of vitamin B12 (222) Kwashiorkor: form of protein-energy malnutrition in which only protein is deficient Legume: starchy seed of a plant that produces bean pods; includes peas, peanuts, beans, soy- beans, and lentils Limiting AminoAcid: essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body’s need Marasmus: form of protein-energy malnutrition in which a deficiency of energy in the diet causes severe body wasting MacrocyticAnemia: reduction in blood’s capacity to carry oxygen that is characterized by abnormally large immature and mature red blood cells MegaloblasticAnemia: reduction in blood’s capacity to carry oxygen that is characterized by abnormally large immature and mature red blood cells Neurotransmitter: chemical substance produced by a nerve cell that can stimulate or inhibit another cell Neutral Tube Defect: abnormality in brain or spinal cord that results from errors that occur during prenatal development Niacin: B vitamin that forms coenzymes essential for glucose metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol Niacin Equivalents: RDA. 1 mg of niacin or 60mg of tryptophan needed to make 1 mg of niacin Nitrogen Balance: amount of nitrogen consumed in the diet compared with the amount excreted over a given period Nonessential or DispensableAmino Acid: can be made in the body Osteomalacia: vitamin D deficiency disease in adults, characterized by loss of minera
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