nutrition chapter 3,4,&5 notes.docx

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Department
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
Course
NSD 225
Professor
Brann
Semester
Winter

Description
Absorption: the process of taking substances from the gastrointestinal tract into the interior of the body Active Transport: transport of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy Aerobic Metabolism: metabolism in the presence of oxygen. Can completely break down glucose to yield carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP Adenosine Triphosphate: high-energy molecule that the body uses to power activities that require energy Adipose Tissue: body fat that lies under the skin and around internal organs Allergen: substance that causes an allergic reaction Anaerobic Metabolism: metabolism in the absence of oxygen Antigen: foreign substance that, when introduced into the body, stimulates an immune response Antibody: protein, released by a type of lymphocyte that interacts with and deactivates specific antigens Antioxidant: substance that decreases the adverse effects of reactive molecules (154) Atherosclerotic Plaque: cholesterol-rich material that is deposited in the arteries of individuals with atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis: type of cardiovascular disease that involved the buildup of fatty material in the artery walls Atom: the smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of the element Arteries: transport blood and dissolved substances away from heart Arterioles: smallest arteries Autoimmune Disease: results from immune reactions that destroy normal body cells Bile: digestive fluid made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that is released into the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion and absorption Bicarbonate: base. Neutralizes the acid in the chyme, making the environment in the small intestine neutral or slightly basic rather than acidic, as in the stomach. Neutrality allows enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine to function Bran: outermost layers contain most of the fiber and are a good source of vitamins and minerals Cardiovascular System: handles delivery of nutrients to cells. Consists of heart and blood vessels Capillary: small, thin-walled blood vessel through which blood and the body’s cells exchange gases and nutrients Cell: the basic structural and functional unit of living things Cellular Respiration: like cell breathing. In mitochondria. Sugar glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids derived from carbs, fats, and proteins, are broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water and release energy Celiac Disease: condition in which the protein gluten, found in wheat, barley, and rye, triggers an immune system response that damages or destroys the villi of the small intestine Chyme: semiliquid food mass. Combination of bolus mashed and mixed with highly acidic stomach secretions Cholesterol: sterol, produced by the liver and consumed in the diet, which is needed to build cell membranes and make hormones and other essential molecules Chylomicron: lipoprotein that transports lipids from the mucosal cells of the small intestine and delivers triglycerides to other body cells (142) Common Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose. Each with 6 C, 12 H, and 6 O. differ in arrangement of atoms Complex Carbs: polysaccharides, generally not sweet. Include glycogen in animals and starches and fibers in plants Dental Caries: (117) Diabetes Mellitus: disease characterized by elevated blood glucose due to either insufficient production of insulin or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin (113) Diffusion: net movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Digestion: the process by which food is broken down into components small enough to be absorbed into the body Disaccharide: carb made up of two sugar units Diverticula: out pouches in wall of colon Diverticulitis: fetal matter accumulation in pouches, causing irritation and pain. Can lead to infection (121) Eicosanoids: regulatory molecules that can be synthesized from omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids Emulsifiers: substances that allow fat and water to mix Endosperm: largest part of the kernel. Made up of mostly starch but also has protein with vitamins and minerals Enrichment: addition of specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron to refined grains. Since 1998 folic acid has also been added to enriched grains Enzyme: a protein molecule that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed Epiglottis: piece of elastic connective tissue that covers the opening to the lungs during swallowing Essential Fatty Acid: fatty acid that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to meet the body’s needs Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency: condition characterized by dry, scaly skin and poor growth that results when the diet does not supply sufficient amounts of linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid Facilitated Diffusion: assisted (by carrier molecule) diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane Fasting Hypoglycemia: occurs when individual has not eaten Fat and Cholesterol Recommendations: 20-35% of calories by fat. Small proportion from essential fatty acids. AI for linoleic acid is 12g/day for women and 17 for men. (155) Fatty Acid: molecule made up of a chain of carbons linked to hydrogens, with an acid group at one end of the chain Feces: body waste, including unabsorbed food residue, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells, which is eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract by way of the anus Fiber: type of complex carb that can't be broken down by human digestive enzymes Food Allergies: occur when the body sees proteins present in a food as foreign substances and initiates an immune response Fortification: addition of nutrients to foods (100) Gallstones: clumps of solid material that accumulate in either the gallbladder or the bile duct Gastric Juice: causes chemical digestion in the stomach. Produced by gastric glands in pits that dot the stomach lining. Mixture of water, mucus, hydrochloric acid, and an inactive form of the protein-digesting enzyme pepsin Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): chronic condition in which acidic stomach contents leak into the esophagus, causing pain and damaging the esophagus Germ: at the base of the kernel, is the embryo where spouting occurs. Source of oil and rich in vitamin E Gestational Diabetes: elevation of blood sugar that is first recognized during pregnancy. High levels of glucose in mother’s blood are passed to fetus, resulting in baby that is large for gestational age and at increased risk of complications Glucose: 6-carbon monosaccharide that is the primary form of carb used to provide energy to the body Glucagon: hormone made in the pancreas that raises blood glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of liver glycogen and the synthesis of glucose (110) Glycolysis: anaerobic metabolic pathway that splits glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules; the energy released from one glucose molecule is used to make two molecules of ATP Glycemic Response: rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after food is consumed (108) Glycogen: the storage form of carb in animals, made up of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure (103
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