nutrition chapter 10 notes.docx

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Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Aerobic Zone: when you are exercising at an intensity where your heart rate raises to 60-85% of maximum heart rate Aerobic Exercise: endurance exercise that increases heart rate and uses oxygen to provide energy as ATP Aerobic Capacity: maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the tissues during exercise. Also called maximal oxygen consumption or VO2 max Anabolic Steroids: synthetic fat-soluble hormones that mimic testosterone and are used to increase muscle strength and mass Beta-Carotene: dietary antioxidant Body Fat: women: 21-32% of total weight. Men: 8-19% Cardiorespiratory Endurance: efficiency with which the body delivers to cells the oxygen and nutrients needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from cells Carb, Fat, and Protein Needs: 6-10g of carb/kg of body weight per day recommended for athletes. 20-35% of energy is fat. 15-20% of calories from protein (369) Carbohydrate Loading: regimen designed to increase muscle glycogen stores beyond their usual level (373) Chronic Disease: exercise can reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and bone and joint disorders Components of Fitness: endurance, strength, flexibility, body composition Creatine: one of the most popular ergogenic supplements. Nitrogen-containing. Found primarily in muscle, where it is used to make creatine phosphate Creatine Phosphate: a compound stored in muscle that can be broken down quickly to make ATP Endorphins: compounds that cause a natural euphoria and reduce the perception of pain under certain stressful conditions Energy Needs: amount of energy expended for an activity depends on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity and the weight of the exerciser ErgogenicAid: substance, an appliance, or procedure that improves athletic performance Fatigue: inability to continue an activity at an optimal level FemaleAthlete Triad: energy restriction, changes in hormone levels that affect menstrual cycle, and disturbances in bone formation and breakdown that can lead to osteoporosis Fitness: set of attributes related to the ability to perform routine physical activities without undue fatigue Flexibility: determines range of motion- how far you can bend and stretch muscles and ligaments. FolicAcid: promoted for aerobic exercise. Involved in transport of oxygen to exercising muscles. Needed for energy metabolism Food Strike Hemolysis: breaking of red blood cells due to contraction of large muscles or impact in events such as running (377) Glycogen Super-Compensation: regimen designed to increase muscle glycogen stores beyond their usual level (373) Heart-Related Illnesses: conditions, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, that can occur due to an unfavorable combination of exercise, hydration status, and climatic conditions Heat Cramps: involuntary muscle spasms that occur during or after intense exercise, usually in the muscles involved in the exercise. Form of heart-related illness caused by imbalance of electrolytes at the muscle cell membranes. Occur when water and salt are lost
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