nutrition chapter 8 notes.docx

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Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Age-Related Bone Loss: bone loss that occurs in both men and women as they advance in age (279) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): signals the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing amount lost in urine Blood Pressure: amount of force exerted by the blood against the walls of arteries (259) Bone Remodeling: continuous process in which small amounts of bone are removed and replaced by new bone (279) Bone Resorption: when too little calcium is consumed, the body maintains normal blood levels by breaking down bone to release calcium (282) Calcium Recommendation: adults 19-50: 1000mg/day (283) Calcitonin: hormone that acts primarily on bone to inhibit release of calcium into blood (282) Chromium: required to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Liver, brewer’s yeast, nuts, and whole grains (298) Cretinism: condition resulting from poor maternal iodine intake during pregnancy that impairs mental development and growth in offspring (297) Cofactor: inorganic ion or coenzyme required for enzyme activity DASH Eating Plan: dietary approaches to stop hypertension. Incorporates recommended amounts of each of these can cause significant reduction in blood pressure and is a dietary pattern recommended by 2010 dietary guidelines. Provides fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Lower in sodium. (275) Dehydration: state that occurs when not enough water is present to meet the body’s needs Diuretic: substance that increases the amount of urine passed from the body Electrolyte: positively or negatively charged ion that conducts an electrical current in solution. Commonly refers to sodium, potassium, and chloride. Help regulate fluid balance, distribution of water throughout body depends on concentration of electrolytes and other solutes (270) Fluorosis: condition caused by chronic overconsumption of fluoride, characterized by black and brown stains and cracking and pitting of teeth (299) Glutathione Peroxidase: antioxidant enzyme. Neutralizes peroxides before they can form free radicals Goiter: enlargement of thyroid gland caused by deficiency of iodine (297) Heme Iron: readily absorbable form of iron found in meat, fish, and poultry that is chemically associated with certain proteins (287) Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein. Transports oxygen to body cells and carries carbon dioxide aware from them for elimination by lungs Hemochromatosis: inherited disorder that results in increased iron absorption. Can cause iron overload Hyponatremia: condition when concentration of sodium in blood drops Hypertension: blood pressure that is consistently elevated to 140/90mm mercury or greater (271) Ion: atom or group of atoms that carries an electrical charge (267) Iodine: found in thyroid gland. Iodized Salt: table salt to which a small amount of sodium iodide or potassium iodide has been added in order to supplement the iodine content of the diet Iron: needed for production of iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. Essential for ATP production in aerobic metabolism. Involved in drug metabolism and immune function Iron DeficiencyAnemia: iron deficiency disease that occurs when t
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