nutrition chapter 11 notes.docx

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Syracuse University
Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Fertilization: the union of a sperm and an egg Implantation: process through which a developing embryo embeds itself in the uterine lining Enbryo: developing human from two through eight weeks after fertilization Placenta: organ produced from maternal and embryonic tissues. It secretes hormones, transfers nutrients and oxygen from the mother’s blood to the fetus, and removes metabolic wastes Fetus: developing human from the ninth week after fertilization to birth Small for GestationalAge: infants who are born on time but have failed to grow well in the uterus Preterm/Premature: born before 37 weeks of gestation Low Birth Weight: less than 5.5lb/2.5kg Very Low Birth Weight: less than 1.5kg/3.3lb Lactation: production and secretion of milk Trimester: 3 months Large for GestationalAge: weighing more than 4kg/8.8lb at birth Edema: expansion in blood volume necessary to nourish the fetus often causes an accumulation of extracellular fluid in the tissues. Does not increase medical risks unless accompanied by rise in blood pressure Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: spectrum of conditions involving elevated blood pressure during pregnancy th Gestational Hypertension: abnormal rise in blood pressure that occurs after 20 week of pregnancy Preeclampsia: condition characterized by elevated blood pressure, a rapid increase in body weight, protein in the urine, and edema.Also called Toxemia Toxemia: condition characterized by elevated blood pressure, a rapid increase in body weight, protein in the urine, and edema. Called Preeclampsia Eclampsia: convulsions or seizures during or immediately after pregnancy. Untreated, it can lead to coma or death Gestational Diabetes: condition characterized by high blood glucose levels that develop during pregnancy Energy Needs: during second and third trimester, an additional 340 and 452 calories/day recommended Protein Needs: increased during pregnancy. Protein is needed for synthesis of new blood cells, formation of the placenta, enlargement of the uterus and breasts, and growth of the baby. nd Additirdal 25g above the RDAfor non-pregnant women or 1.1g/kg/day recommended for 2 and 3 trimester Carbohydrate Needs: RDAincreased by 45g, to 175g/day Fluid Needs:
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