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NSD 225 (27)
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Chapter 13&14

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Nutrition Science & Dietetics
NSD 225

Accidental Contaminant: a substance not regulated by the FDAthat unexpectedly enters the food supply Acrylamind: contaminant formed during food preparation. Formed as a result of chemical reactions that occur during high-temp baking or frying in carb-rich foods. High levels in fries and chips. High doses can cause cancer in animals and reproductive problems and are neurotoxins in humans Arsenic: can increase risk of cancer Aseptic Processing: the placement of sterilized food in a sterilized package using a sterile process Bioaccumulation: the process by which compounds accumulate or build up in an organism faster than they can be broken down or excreted Biotechnology: the process of manipulating life forms via genetic engineering in order to provide desirable products for human use. Alters characteristics of organisms by making selective changes in DNA Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: mad cow disease. Deadly degenerative neurological disease that affects cattle Bovine Somatotropin (bST): synthetic hormone. Cow naturally produce bST which stimulates milk production. Genetically engineered bST is produced by bacteria and injected into cows to further increase milk production Cadmium: can interfere with absorption of other minerals. Can cause kidney damage Campylobacter Jejuni: leading cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in developed countries. Common sources are undercooked chicken, unpasteurized milk, and untreated water. Grows slowly in cold temperatures and is killed by heat Cash Crop: a crop that is grown to be sold for monetary return rather than as food for the local population. Improves the country’s cash flow but uses local resources to produce crops for export and limits ability of people to produce enough food to feed their families Clostridium Perfringens: food-borne intoxication. Called cafeteria germ because it is stored in large containers. Produce deadliest of all bacterial food toxins Common GM Crops: soybeans, corn, cotton, and rapeseed/canola Cross-Contamination: the transfer of contaminants from one food or object to another Cryptosporidium Parvum: single-celled parasite that is commonly spread by contaminated water and sometimes raw fruits and vegetables Cycle of Malnutrition: begins when women consume a nutrient-deficient diet during pregnancy. Give birth to low-weight infants who are susceptible to illness and early death (506) Delaney Clause: part of the 1958 FoodAdditivesAmendment that states that a substance that induces cancer in either an animal species or humans, at any dosage, may not be added to food Direct FoodAdditive: a substance that is intentionally added to food. Direct food additives are regulated by the FDA E. Coli O157:H7: produces a toxin in the body that causes abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and in severe cases a form of kidney failure called hemolytic-uremic syndrome, which can be fatal Escherichia Coli: bacterium that inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals. Comes into contact with food through fecal contamination of water or unsanitary handling of food. Famine: a wide-spread lack of access to food due to a disaster that causes a collapse in food production and marketing systems FATTOM: food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, moisture (487) Fight Bac: p478 FoodAdditive: substance that is intentionally added to or can reasonably be expected to become a component of a food during processing. Improve food quality and help protect us from disease. Food Borne Illness: an illness caused by consumption of contained food Food Borne Infection: any food-borne illness caused by pathogens that multiply in the human body Food-Borne Intoxication: any food-borne illness caused by consuming a food that contains toxins produced by pathogens Food Desert: an area that lacks access to affordable fruits, veggies, whole grains, low-fat milk, and other foods that make up a healthy diet Food Insecurity: a situation in which people lack adequate physical, social, or economic access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life Food Packaging: regulated by EPAand FDA. Regulations apply only to the intended use of the product. Food Recovery: involves collecting food that is wasted in fields, commercial kitchens, restaurants, and grocery stores and distributing it to those in need Fortifying Food: can increase the protein quality of the diet and eliminate micronutrient deficiencies. Works only if vulnerable groups consume centrally processed foods Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS): a group of chemical additives that are considered safe, based on their long-standing presence in the food supply without harmful effects before 1958 Genetic Engineering: a set of techniques used to manipulate DNAfor the purpose of changing the characteristics of an organism or creating a new product. More difficult in animals because the cells don't take up genes as easily as plant cells do and making copies of cells is more difficult Giardia Lamblia: single-celled parasite that is often contracted by hikers who drink untreated water from streams contaminated with animal feces HazardAnalysis Critical Control Point: a food safety system that focuses on identifying and preventing hazards that could cause food-borne illness Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: form of kidney failure HeterocyclicAmines (HCAs): produced by burning of amino acids and other substances in meats and are formed during any type of high-temp cooking. Can be reduced by precooking meat, marinating meat, cooking at lower temps, and reducing cooking time by using smaller pieces Hunger: recurrent involuntary lack of food that over time may lead to malnutrition Indirect Food Additive: a substance that is expected to unintentionally enter food during manufacturing or from packaging. Indirect food additives are regulated by the FDA Infant Mortality Rate: the number of death during the first ye
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