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Chapter 6

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PSY 205

Chapter 6 • Learning: relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience • Conditioning: involves learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment • Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations • Classical conditioning: type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus • Pavlovian conditioning: by Ivan Pavlov, Pavlov’s determination to discover the conditions that produce this kind of learning • Pavlov: study the role of saliva in the digestive processes of dogs when he stumbled onto what he called “psychic reflexes”. • Noticed dogs accustomed to the procedure would start salivating before the meat was presented • Tone: neutral stimulus • US: natural, not learned • UR: response that was natural not learned • CS: learned • CR: learned response • Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. • Unconditioned response: unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning • Conditioned stimulus: previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response • Conditioned response: learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning • Elicited: drawn forth • Trial: classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimulus • Immunosuppression: decrease in the production of antibodies • Evaluative conditioning: changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus with other positive or negative stimuli • Acquisition: Refers to the initial stage of learning something • Stimulus contiguity: occurrence of stimuli together in time and space • Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency • Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus • Renewal effect: response is extinguished in a different environment than where it was acquired, the extinguished response will appear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place • Stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus • John Watson: founder of behaviorism, “Little Albert” • Panic disorder: involves recurrent, overwhelming anxiety attacks that occur suddenly and unexpectedly • Stimulus discrimination: when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus • Higher-order conditioning: conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus • Classical conditioning: reflexive responding that’s largely controlled by stimuli precede response • Operant conditioning: B.F. Skinner “The Behavior of Organisms”, form of learning which responses come to be controlled by their consequences • Classical conditioning: regulate reflexive, involuntary responses • Operant conditioning: governed voluntary responses • Reinforcement: when an event following response increases organism’s tendency make response • Operant chamber/Skinner box: small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled • Emit: send forth • Reinforcement contingencies: circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers • Cumulative recorder: creates graphic record responding+reinforcement in a Skinner box a
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