PSY 205 CHAPTER 1
Key Learning Goals
1.1 Wundt separated psychology from philosophy or physiology. He established the first
lab for psychology research in Germany. Wundt is known as the founder of psychology.
Wundt believed psychology was the study of the conscious experience.
Hall studied under Wundt and is responsible for the growth of psychology inAmerica. He
established the first psych lab in America at Johns Hopkins. He created the first
psychology journal inAmerica. He created theAmerican PsychologicalAssociation.
1.2 Structuralism, supported by Titchner, focus on examining and identifying the
components of conscious experience (feelings, images, sensations). This school used
introspection, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience (asked what you
Functionalism, supported by James, was based on the idea that psychology should be
concerned with the function/purpose of consciousness, not the structure. James’
discoveries showed how psychology is embedded in cultural and intellectual influences.
Functionalism led to two descendants: behaviorism and applied psychology.
1.3 Freud believed that unconscious thoughts, memories, and desires influence our
behavior. He thought that psychological disturbances reflect a personal conflict at an
unconscious level. Freud had a psychoanalytic theory, which tried to explain personality,
motivation, and mental disorders. Freud proposed that behavior is influenced by how
people cope with their sexual urges.
1.4 Behaviorism was founded by Watson. He believed that psychology should be
concerned with behaviors, not consciousness. Watson believed that feelings and thoughts
are intangible and unverifiable. This went against Freud’s psychoanalytical theory.
Watson believed that behavior is governed by the environment (dozen infants). With
Pavlov’s later discoveries, behaviorists accepted the idea that psychology should center
on relating behaviors to the environment. With this came the founding of stimulus-
response research methods (animal testing).
Watson had a public divorce scandal and went into advertising, where he excelled. He is
known as the first ‘pop’psychologist and is seen as the face of behaviorism.
1.5 With Skinner came a return of Watson and Pavlov’s ways of thinking. Skinner
believed psychology should not scientifically study internal mental events. He believed
that all behavior is governed by the environment. Skinner discovered that organisms tend
to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes (dog).
The humanism school or thought is result of the blending of behaviorism and
psychoanalytical theory. Humanism emphasizes the unique characteristics of humans,
especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. Humanists believed
people are different from animals and therefore animal testing is useless. The most
prominent humanists were Rogers and Maslow who believed behavior is influence by our
sense of self (animals lack). They believed psychological disturbances were due to
thwarting the human need to reach their full potential. Humanists contributed an innovative treatment for psychological problems and are responsible for person-centered
Concept Check 1.2
1. _Skinner_- In traditional view, a person is free… he is responsible for himself…
controlling relations between behavior and environment
2. _Rogers_ - I do not have a Pollyanna view of human nature…. I enjoy working with
clients and discovering the strongly positive directional tendencies that lie in all of us
3. _Watson_- We have no real evidence of inheritance of traits… with a good upbringing,
a child coming from a long lie of criminals can be a useful citizen to society
Key Learning Goals
1.6 The first applied arm of psychology was clinical psychology, which focused on
psychological testing and adjustment problems in school children. Psychology was a field
mainly concerned with research; few had interest in clinical psychology. However, with
WW II came a change. Many psychologists screened recruits and treated soldiers for
trauma. This opened the door to clinical psychology for many psychologists. There was
also an increase in d