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Chapter 3

PSY 335-Chapter 3 Textbook Notes

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Course Code
PSY 335

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PSY 335Chapter 3 Textbook Notes The Start of Life Genetics and Prenatal Development Earliest Development sperm a males reproductive cellgamete and an eggovum a females reproductive cellgamete join together to create a zygote gene blueprints of life that make individuals unique and what differentiates certain cells composed of DNA along 46 chromosomes monozygotic twins genetically identical come from the same conjuncted ovum and sperm zygote dizygotic twins two ovum fertilized by two separate sperm siblings that are genetically different but have the same birthday the 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the gender XXfemale XYmale determined by the fathers sperm all female mothers donate an Xchromosome dominant trait expressed gene recessive trait hidden gene unless paired with another recessive gene genotype underlying genetic combination ie red hair is recessive genotype is rr phenotype observable trait ie red hair homozygous having similar genes from parents ie B from parent 1 B from parent 2 b from parent 1 b from parent 2 heterozygous having different genes from parents ie B from parent 1 b from parent 2 behavioral genetics studying heredity on physical characteristics ie how genetics affect personality genetic counseling helping individuals with genetic disorders cope Genetic Disorders PKU phenylketonuria recessive disorder where individual is unable to make phenylalanine protein causes brain damage Xlinked genes genes located only on the Xchromosome eg hemophilia Downs syndrome previously called mongolism having an extra 23rd chromosome most frequent cause of mental retardation Fragile X syndrome damaged gene in the Xchromosome results in mildmedium mental retardation sicklecell anemia blood disorder where red blood cells are moonshaped and carry small amounts of oxygen
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