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PSYC 107

PSYC 107 Exam 3 Notes A) We’re equipped early on a. Babies get object permanence earlier than assumed i. Seen with the train and box video B) Cognitive Development a. Language development i. Uniquely human trait (Chombski) ii. Symbolic iii. Meaningful iv. Structured v. Generative (limited number of symbols used in an infinite number of ways) vi. We can learn any language vii. Toddler twins show secret babble language b. Stages i. Babbling (infants) ii. One-word (one-year) iii. Two-words (18 months) iv. Near adult competence (3 years) c. Chomsky i. We can learn any language ii. Caretakers don’t teach language d. Behaviorists i. We learn by operant and conditional conditioning e. Piaget i. We acquire it at a certain age C) Social and emotional Development a. Social development i. Sense of self 1. Early step of development 2. “I am distinct from others” 3. 18-24 months 4. Rage test a. See if babies tried to wipe away a mark on someone’s face 5. Theory of mind a. Beliefs about the mind, other people’s mental states b. Sally-Anne task i. My mind is separate from others c. 3-4 years of age d. Remembering where an object was placed in a box 6. Age 2 a. Lying b. Envy c. Embarrassment d. Shame e. Price ii. Social and emotional 1. Regulate emotion 2. Thumb sucking 3. Turn away from unpleasantness 4. Clinging and tantrums 5. Self-control a. Ability to inhibit impulses b. Emotional regulation c. Walter Mischel= delay of gratification i. Waiting to eat candy ii. Marshmallow paradigm 1. Eat 1 now, or eat two later 2. Relates to later ability to cope with stress 3. Better socially adjustable/more dependable 4. Higher SAT scores 5. Can be practiced 6. Attachment theory a. John Bowley and Mary Aunsworth i. Children develop attachment styles with their caregivers b. Harlow Model i. Some monkeys got food from momma, others did not c. Strange Situation Paradigm i. Primary caregiver with stranger, caregiver leaves baby alone with stranger, baby’s response upon parents return determines attachment style d. Secure attachment i. 65% of people ii. Caregiver is consistent, source of comfort, secure base e. Avoidant attachment i. 20-25% ii. Primary caregiver does not provide comfort iii. Emotionally distant, no emotion with leaving f. Anxious Ambivalent attachment i. 10-15% children ii. Primary caregiver gives inconsistent comfort iii. Anxious at play, upset when caregiver leaves g. Disorganized attachment i. Apprehension and confusion ii. Should be alarmed iii. We don’t know much h. Can affect later relationships in life i. Avoidant will have few friends, bully, etc. ii. Anxious will be very sensitive to rejection 7. Childhood: Romanian orphanage a. No attachment style b. Would walk away with a stranger b/c no attachment to caregiver 8. Adulthood: a. Both of research says attachment style affects romantic relationship i. Secure: good partners for anyone ii. Avoidant: less satisfied, hard to feel emotion iii. Anxious: preoccupied, less satisfied b. Anxious woman + avoidant man= very secure 9. What shapes attachment style? a. Caregiver’s personality, inborn temperament, life’s relationships b. Can run amuck- aren’t breastfeeding a 4 year old D) Personality a. Function of body and mind b. Characteristic: relatively consistent across time, places, situations c. Distinctive: distinguishes individual from others d. Theories i. Psychodynamic 1. Freud 2. Influential if not validated 3. Personality is a function of energy 4. Mind is: conscious, preconscious (access to but not thinking about), unconscious 5. Mind is: id, ego (develops after id, executive personality), superego a. Id: I want it now, ego: I need to plan first, superego: no you can’t; it’s not right 6. Defense mechanisms= unconscious strategies to protect self from distress 7. Role of childhood development
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