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Chapter 11

PSYC 320 Chapter 11: Chapter 11- The auditory brain and perceiving auditory scenes

4 Pages

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PSYC 320
Brian Anderson

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1 Chapter 11: The auditory brain and perceiving auditory scenes Vocabulary • Cochlear nucleus-A structure in the brain stem (one on each side of the brain); it receives signals via Type 1 auditory nerve fibers from inner hair cells in the ipsilateral ear • Inferior colliculus- A structure in the midbrain (one on each side of the brain); a stop on the ascending auditory pathway • Medial geniculate body (MGB)- A structure in the thalamus (one on each side of the brain); the next stop on the ascending auditory pathway after the inferior colliculus • Superior olivary complex- A structure in the brain stem (one on each side); a stop on the ascending auditory pathway receiving signals from both cochlear nuclei • Acoustic reflex- A contraction of tiny muscles attached to the ossicles that limits their movement in the presence of loud sounds and hence prevents overstimulation of the cochlea • Auditory cortex- part of the cerebral cortex, tucked into the lateral sulcus on top of the temporal lobe; consists of the auditory core region, belt, and parabelt • Primary auditory cortex (A1)- Part of the auditory core region • Auditory core region- Part of the auditory cortex, located within the transverse temporal gyrus in each hemisphere; consists of the primary auditory cortex, rostral core, and rostrotemporal core • Belt- Along with the parabelt, a region of cortex wrapped around and receiving signals from the auditory core region • Parabelt- along with the belt, a region of cortex wrapped around and receiving signals from the auditory core region • Tonotopic map- An arrangement of neurons within auditory brain regions such that the characteristic frequencies of the neurons gradually shift from lower at one end of the region to higher at the other end • Azimuth- In sound localization, the location of a sound source in the side-to-side dimension in the horizontal plane- that is, the angle left or right of the median plane • Elevation- In sound localization, the location of a sound source in the up-down dimension in the median plane- the angle above or below the horizontal plane • Distance- In sound localization, how far a sound source is from the center of the head in any direction • Minimum audible angle- The minimum angular separation between a reference sound and a different sound source emitting a tone of the same frequency that yields 75% correct judgments about the relative horizontal positions of the two sources • Acoustic shadow- An area on the other side of the head from a sound source in which the loudness of the sound waves are partially blocked by the head; has a much greater effect on high frequency sounds than low frequency sounds • Interaural level difference (ILD)- The difference in the sound level of the same sound at the two ears • Interaural time difference (ITD)- The difference in arrival time of the same sound at the two ears 1 2 • Cone of confusion- A hypothetical cone shaped surface in auditory space; when two equally distant sounds are located on a cone of confusion, their locations are confusable because they have highly similar ILD and ITD • Spectral shape cue- A pinna-induced modification in a sound’s frequency spectrum; provides information about the elevation of the sound source • Doppler effect- The frequency of a sound emitted by a moving sound source is higher in front of the sound source than behind it, the frequency rapidly decreases as the sound source passes the listener • Echolocation- Sound localization based on emitting sounds and then processing the echoes to determine the nature and location of the object that produced the echoes • Precedence effect- The localization of a sound as originating from a source in the direction from which the sound first arrives; minimizes the effect of echoes on sound localization • Ventriloquism effect- The tendency to localize sound on the basis of visual cues when visual and auditory cues provide conflicting information • Auditory scene- All the sounds entering the ears during the current interval of time • Auditory scene analysis- The process of extracting and grouping together the frequencies emitted by specific sound sources from among the complex mixture of frequencies emitted by multiple sound sources within the auditory scene • Auditory stream- An assortment of frequencies occurring over time that were all emitted by the same sound source or related sound sources • Auditory stream segregation- The process of perceptual organization of the auditory scene into a set of distinct auditory streams • Sensory substitution device (SSD)- Any artificial aid in the process of acquiring information via one sense that is usually acquired via another sense Summary • The auditory Brain o Auditory information travels via ascending pathways that begin at the inner hair cells in the cochlea, which send signals to the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus in the brain stem ▪ Then signals travel from each cochlear nucleus to both the ipsilateral and contralateral superior olivary complex, also in the brain stem ▪ From there, signals go to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain, then to the medial geniculate body in the thalamus,
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