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Chapter 11

SPMT 319 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Social Isolation, Group Dynamics, Social Capital


Department
Sport Management
Course Code
SPMT 319
Professor
Pickett
Chapter
11

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Chapter 11: Sport and Community 3/8/2017 5:28:00 PM
Introduction
Sport is commonly considered a realm that draws people together
A key contributor to the creation of community
Two important ways
o Based on geographical boundaries
o Based on the common source of interest or activity
Through a strong identification and active membership
Participants or members all have a common interest in being active
participants, athletes, or fans
o Communities of interest
Community: Individuals who are members of a healthy community
will experience a strong sense of community
Sense of Community
Sarason
o Being analogous to hunger
o An envrionemtnal characteristic that leads individuals to
perceive that support is available from a larger and more
stable structure
o
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
o Primary physiological and safety needs are met, individuals
have an innate desire and motivation for interpersonal
interaction and wanting to belong
o Third level
McMillan and Cahvis’ Sense of Community Theory
o Based on four components
Membership: Having to do with boundaries that created
a distinction between those who belong and those who
do not belong
Influence: Comprised of actions that led members to
being empowered and also feeling empowered to
influence the group and its direction
Bidirectional
Integration and Fulfillment of Needs: Based on the idea
that resources and support were available at the group
level for individuals
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Individuals are drawn to others who can provide
them with some benefit
Shared Emotional Connections: Important for
individuals to share a common history and a common
set of experiences
Sociological View on Sense of Community
o Concerned with matters of society not matters of individual
members
o Emile Durkheim
Anomie and anomic conditions were major contributors
to the increases in longitundal suicide trends that he
observed across different societies
Anomie: Being the direct opposite or antithesis of a
sense of community
o Helps place focus on the social structures and institutional
factors
Benefits of Experiencing a Sense of Community
o Vital factor in enhancing numerous quality of life factors for
individuals and communities
Current US Trends: Individuals and Community
Contemporary society tends to develop and form communities
based on interests and skills rather than around a geographical
location or neighborhood
Social capital: The economic benefits that result from the
interpersonal relationships with others in and between social
networks
o Social isolation is increasing
Recent Work in Understanding Sense of Community
Gender differences
Academic and quality of life benefits
Building Community Via Sport
The mere presence of sport does not instantaneously create a
community
Participatory Sport
o Warner and Dixon’s important factors
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